Determination of Morphine in Urine

  • Shrabani De
  • Raksha Choudhary
  • Rashmi MadhuriEmail author


Morphine is a well-known and widely used analgesic drug that gives a dreamlike feeling to which people get easily addicted. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, morphine was first separated from opium poppy in pure form. Till now, a large fold of increment in the use of morphine is reported, not as medicine but as the drug of abuse also. So, an efficient detection method of morphine is required to determine the trace amount of drug present in biological fluids. Among various biological fluids, urine is one of the most popular matrices for drug screening because drugs are generally concentrated in urine. In the previous decades, a steady development has been observed for the betterment of morphine detection techniques in a urine sample. In this chapter, several determination techniques of urinary morphine have been compiled and discussed. Several chromatographic [like gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE)] and non-chromatographic methods (like electrochemical detection, molecular imprinting) are discussed. Among these, the hyphenated techniques (like HPLC-mass spectroscopy) are better for screening drugs than normal techniques (only HPLC). Role of artificial antibody, i.e. molecularly imprinted polymers, in the selective detection of morphine is also discussed in this chapter. The major attention of this chapter is to communicate the advantages, drawbacks and future feasibility of available procedures reported so far to the readers/researchers working in this field.

List of Abbreviations




Ammonium formate buffer


Gold nanoparticles




Charge-coupled detector


Capillary electrophoresis


Capillary electrochromatography


Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectroscopy


Capillary electrophoresis-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy


Capillary gel electrophoresis


Capillary isoelectric focusing


Chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy


Capillary isotacophoresis


Critical micelle concentration


Magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan


Carbon nanotube


Cyclic voltammetric technique


Capillary zone electrophoresis


Diode array detection


Electrochemical detection


Electron impact


Electron impact-selected ion monitoring


Electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography


Electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy


Electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy


Electrospray ionization-selected reaction monitoring


Fluorescence detection


Gas chromatography


Gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy


High performance liquid chromatography


High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization


High performance thin layer liquid chromatography


Immune affinity column


Infrared spectroscopy


Liquid chromatography


Liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization


Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy


Liquid chromatography thermospray mass spectroscopy


Liquid liquid extraction-thin layer chromatography


Limit of detection






Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography


Miceller electrokinetic capillary chromatography


Molecularly imprinted polymer


Molecularly imprinting polymers


Magnetic dummy molecularly imprinting polymers


Mass spectroscopy


Multiwall carbon nanotubes


Multiwall carbon nanotubes


Non-imprinted polymer




Poly (dimethylsiloxane)


Pentafluoropropionic anhydride


Pencil graphite electrode


Porous silicon


Pound-force per square inch


Sodium dodecyl sulphate


Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy


Selected ion monitoring


Solid phase extraction


Solid phase extraction


Trifluoroacetic anhydride


Thin layer chromatography




Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography






World health organisation



Ms. De has given the major contribution in writing this chapter along with drawing the figures and tables, taking the copyright permission, etc.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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