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Determination of Morphine in Urine

  • Shrabani De
  • Raksha Choudhary
  • Rashmi MadhuriEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Morphine is a well-known and widely used analgesic drug that gives a dreamlike feeling to which people get easily addicted. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, morphine was first separated from opium poppy in pure form. Till now, a large fold of increment in the use of morphine is reported, not as medicine but as the drug of abuse also. So, an efficient detection method of morphine is required to determine the trace amount of drug present in biological fluids. Among various biological fluids, urine is one of the most popular matrices for drug screening because drugs are generally concentrated in urine. In the previous decades, a steady development has been observed for the betterment of morphine detection techniques in a urine sample. In this chapter, several determination techniques of urinary morphine have been compiled and discussed. Several chromatographic [like gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE)] and non-chromatographic methods (like electrochemical detection, molecular imprinting) are discussed. Among these, the hyphenated techniques (like HPLC-mass spectroscopy) are better for screening drugs than normal techniques (only HPLC). Role of artificial antibody, i.e. molecularly imprinted polymers, in the selective detection of morphine is also discussed in this chapter. The major attention of this chapter is to communicate the advantages, drawbacks and future feasibility of available procedures reported so far to the readers/researchers working in this field.

List of Abbreviations

6-MAM

6-monoacetylmorphine

AFB

Ammonium formate buffer

AuNPs

Gold nanoparticles

C6G

Codeine-6-glucuronides

CCD

Charge-coupled detector

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

CEC

Capillary electrochromatography

CE-MS

Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectroscopy

CE-SERS

Capillary electrophoresis-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

CGE

Capillary gel electrophoresis

CIEF

Capillary isoelectric focusing

CI-MS

Chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy

CITP

Capillary isotacophoresis

CMC

Critical micelle concentration

CMNP

Magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CV

Cyclic voltammetric technique

CZE

Capillary zone electrophoresis

DAD

Diode array detection

ED

Electrochemical detection

EI

Electron impact

EI-SIM

Electron impact-selected ion monitoring

ESI-LC

Electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography

ESI-MS

Electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy

ESI-QTOF-MS

Electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

ESI-SRM

Electrospray ionization-selected reaction monitoring

FLD

Fluorescence detection

GC

Gas chromatography

GC-MS

Gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

HPLC-ESI

High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization

HPTLC

High performance thin layer liquid chromatography

IAC

Immune affinity column

IR

Infrared spectroscopy

LC

Liquid chromatography

LC-APCI-MS

Liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

LC-MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy

LC-TSP-MS

Liquid chromatography thermospray mass spectroscopy

LLE-TLC

Liquid liquid extraction-thin layer chromatography

LOD

Limit of detection

M3G

morphine-3-glucuronide

M6G

Morphine-6-glucuronide

MECC

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

MEKC

Miceller electrokinetic capillary chromatography

MIP

Molecularly imprinted polymer

MIPs

Molecularly imprinting polymers

MMIP

Magnetic dummy molecularly imprinting polymers

MS

Mass spectroscopy

MWCNTs

Multiwall carbon nanotubes

MWCNTs

Multiwall carbon nanotubes

NIP

Non-imprinted polymer

NPs

Nanoparticles

PDMS

Poly (dimethylsiloxane)

PFPA

Pentafluoropropionic anhydride

PGE

Pencil graphite electrode

PSi

Porous silicon

psi

Pound-force per square inch

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulphate

SERS

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

SIM

Selected ion monitoring

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SPE

Solid phase extraction

TFA

Trifluoroacetic anhydride

TLC

Thin layer chromatography

TMS

Trimethylsiloxane

UHPLC

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography

UV

Ultraviolet-visible

UV-Vis

Ultraviolet-visible

WHO

World health organisation

Notes

Acknowledgements

Ms. De has given the major contribution in writing this chapter along with drawing the figures and tables, taking the copyright permission, etc.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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