Multidrug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

  • C. Cillóniz
  • C. Dominedò
  • A. TorresEmail author
Part of the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (AUICEM)


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. Although several different bacteria and respiratory viruses can be responsible for CAP, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains the most common causative pathogen. A small proportion of CAP cases are caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomona maltophilia [2, 3]. The main problem concerning the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections is their related antibiotic resistance, reported as multidrug resistant (MDR = resistant to at least one agent in three or more groups of antibiotics), extensively drug resistant (XDR = resistant to at least one agent in all but two or fewer groups of antibiotics) and pan-drug resistant (PDR = resistant to all groups of antibiotics) [4]. This makes the clinical management of pneumonia caused by such pathogens a challenge for physicians. Taking into account the clinical severity that may be associated with CAP caused by Gram-negative bacteria (respiratory failure, bacteremia, shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]) the magnitude of the global health problem is tremendous.



Dr Cillóniz is the recipient of a Postdoctoral Grant (Strategic plan for research and innovation in health-PERIS 2016-2020).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PneumologyHospital Clinic of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS)BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Biomedical Research Networking Centres in Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES)BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineFondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly

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