Advertisement

Shape Casting pp 239-252 | Cite as

The Contactless Electromagnetic Sonotrode

  • Koulis A. PericleousEmail author
  • Valdis Bojarevics
  • Georgi Djambazov
  • Agnieszka Dybalska
  • William Griffiths
  • Catherine Tonry
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Ultrasonic pressure waves generated using a tuned electromagnetic induction coil promote cavitation in alloy melts as an alternative to the immersed sonotrode technique. The method targets the same benefits offered by traditional UST (degassing, microstructure refinement, dispersion of particles), but without some of its drawbacks. The method is contactless, meaning it can be applied equally to high temperature/reactive melts, avoiding contamination due to probe erosion, and consequently, it is maintenance free. Due to induction stirring, larger volumes of melt can be treated (a major limitation of the traditional method), as the liquid is forced to pass repeatedly through zones of cavitation activity. The coil configuration used will depend on application. In the installation shown, a top conical coil immersed in aluminium melt (contactless due to EM repulsion) was used. Simulations of sound, flow and EM fields are given, compared with experiments and indicating strong stirring, evidence of cavitation through emitted sound signals and, most importantly, grain refinement.

Keywords

Ultrasonic melt treatment Electromagnetic vibration Gas cavitation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from the ExoMet Project (co-funded by the European Commission (contract FP7-NMP3-LA-2012-280421), by the European Space Agency and by the individual partner organizations) and the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through grants EP/P034411/1, EP/R000239/1 and EP/R002037/1.

References

  1. 1.
    Campbell J (1981) Effects of vibration during solidification. Int Metals Rev 26(1):71–108Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eskin GI, Eskin DG (2014) Ultrasonic treatment of light alloy melts, 2nd edn. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meek T, Jian X, Xu H, Han Q (2006) Ultrasonic processing of materials, ORNL/TM-2005/125Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Manoylov A, Lebon GSB, Djambazov G, Pericleous K (2017) Coupling of acoustic cavitation with DEM-based particle solvers for modeling de-agglomeration of particle clusters in liquid metals. MMTA 48(11):5616–5627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tzanakis I, Xu WW, Eskin DG, Lee PD, Kotsovinos N In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium, Ultrason. Sonochem. 27:72–80Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sillekens W, Jarvis D, Vorozhtsov A, Bojarevics V, Badini C, Pavese M, Terzi S, Salvo L, Katsarou L, Djeringa H (2014) The ExoMet Project: EU/ESA Research on High-Performance Light-Metal Alloys and Nanocomposites, Metall Mater Trans A, 2014 45A(8):3349–3361. 13Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vives C (1996) J Crystal Growth 158(1–2):118Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grants I, et al (2015) J Applied Phys 117:204901Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tzanakis I, Xu WW, Lebon G, Eskin DG, Pericleous K, Lee PD (2015), Phys Proced 70:841Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruirun C, Deshuang Z, Tengfei M, Hongsheng D, Yanqing S, Jingjie G, Hengzhi F (2017) Effects of ultrasonic vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high alloying TiAl. Sci Rep 7:41463.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bojarevics V, Djambazov GS, Pericleous KA (2015) Metall Mat Trans A 46(7):2884–2892Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bojarevics V, Pericleous K, et al (2016) Eur Patent 13756442:3–1373Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tonry CEH, Djambazov G, Dybalska A, Bojarevics V, Griffiths WD, Pericleous KA Resonance from contactless ultrasound in alloy melts, In: Light Metals 2019Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Griffiths WD et al (2012) Metal Mater Trans B 43B:370–378Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pericleous KA, Bojarevics V (2007) Progress Comput Fluid Dyn 7, Nos. 2/3/4Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bojarevics V, Harding RA, Pericleous KA, Wickins M (2004) The development and experimental validation of a numerical model of an induction skull melting furnace. Metall Mat Trans B, 35(4):785–803Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilcox DC (1998) Turbulence modelling for CFD. 2nd ed., DCW Industries, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Djambazov GS et al (2000) AIAA J 38(1):16Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lebon GSB, Tzanakis I, Djambazov G, Pericleous K, Eskin DG (2017) Numerical modelling of ultrasonic waves in a bubbly Newtonian liquid using a high-order acoustic cavitation model. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 37:660–668Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB, Eskin DG, Pericleous K (2016) Investigation of the factors influencing cavitation intensity during the ultrasonic treatment of molten aluminium. Mater Des 90:979–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eskin GI (1998) Ultrasonic Treatment of Light Alloy Melts, 1st edn. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koulis A. Pericleous
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valdis Bojarevics
    • 1
  • Georgi Djambazov
    • 1
  • Agnieszka Dybalska
    • 2
  • William Griffiths
    • 3
  • Catherine Tonry
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process AnalysisUniversity of GreenwichLondonUK
  2. 2.School of Metallurgy and MaterialsUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  3. 3.University of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations