Advertisement

Algeria

  • André SiebritsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Southern Space Studies book series (SOSPST)

Abstract

Algeria is one of Africa’s leading states in the space arena. Its space agency Agence Spatiale Algérienne (ASAL) was formed in 2002 to contribute to economic, social, and cultural development, the protection of the environment, the management of natural resources, and the safety and wellbeing of Algeria’s people. ASAL’s actions are guided by the Programme Spatial National (PSN), which runs until 2020. Thus far, six Algerian satellites have been placed in orbit, and a strong emphasis has been placed on using space applications to support sustainable development in line with ASAL’s mandate. Overall, Algeria has a robust space posture that, while predicated on cooperation, actively places space at the service of national development efforts, particularly in the gaining of critical skills and capabilities. As such, the country has shown a clear upward trend in its technical autonomy and capabilities, and Algeria is set to remain one of the African leaders in space.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Abidi, R.: Satellite remote sensing in aid of development: the Tunis declaration. Space Policy 19 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abiodun, A.A.: Trends in the global space arena—impact on Africa and Africa’s response. Space Policy 28 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aerospace Technology: Alcomsat-1 Communications Satellite. Verdict Media Limited. https://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/alcomsat-1-communications-satellite/ (2018). Accessed 2 Dec 2018
  4. 4.
    Agence Spatial Algérienne: Alsat-2A: deuxième satellite d’observation de la terre du Programme Spatial National—horizon 2020 (PSN). http://www.asal.dz/Alsat%202A.php (2015). Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  5. 5.
    Agence Spatial Algérienne: Ecole Doctorale des Technologies et Applications Spatiales (EDTAS). http://www.asal.dz/Ecole%20doctorale.php (2015). Accessed 16 Mar 2017 (French)
  6. 6.
    Agence Spatial Algérienne: Entités opérationnelles. http://www.asal.dz/entites.php (2015). Accessed 13 Mar 2017 (French)
  7. 7.
    Agence Spatial Algérienne: La coopération multilatérale. http://www.asal.dz/cooperationm.php (2015). Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  8. 8.
    Agence Spatial Algérienne: Mission. http://www.asal.dz/mission.php (2009). Accessed 13 Mar 2017 (French)
  9. 9.
    Agence Spatial Algérienne: Programme spatial national (PSN). http://www.asal.dz/psn.php (2015). Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  10. 10.
    Airbus Defence and Space: Successful launch of ALSAT 2B completes Airbus Defence and Space’s ALSAT Programme. https://airbusdefenceandspace.com/newsroom/news-and-features/successful-launch-of-alsat-2b-completes-airbus-defence-and-spaces-alsat-programme/ (2016). Accessed 12 Mar 2017
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Algeria Press Service: Algeria, UK sign MoU in space-related activities. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/1607-algeria,-uk-sign-mou-in-space-related-activities (2014 Mar 17). Accessed 17 Mar 2017)
  13. 13.
    Algeria Press Service: Algerian satellites manufacturers honoured in Oran. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/15111-algerian-satellites-manufacturers-honoured-in-oran (2016 Nov 10). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  14. 14.
    Algeria Press Service: Alsat-2B, Alsat-1B: Reception of first images went smoothly. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/14835-alsat-2b,-alsat-1b-reception-of-first-images-went-smoothly (Oct 24 2016). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  15. 15.
    Algeria Press Service: ASAL, UNITAR sign cooperation agreement in space field. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/1257-asal,-unitar-sign-cooperation-agreement-in-space-field (2014 Feb 23). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  16. 16.
    Algeria Press Service: ASAL: Three Algerian satellites successfully launched from India. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/14362-asal-three-algerian-satellites-successfully-launched-from-india (2016 Sept 26). Accessed 15 Mar 2017
  17. 17.
    Algeria Press Service: Hadjar recalls Algeria’s willingness to ‘put space tool at service of sustainable development’. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/14851-hadjar-recalls-algeria-s-willingness-to-put-space-tool-at-service-of-sustainable-development (2016 Oct 25). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  18. 18.
    Algeria Press Service: Outer space: Algeria presents in New York report of 57th session of UNCOPUOS. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/4554-outer-space-algeria-presents-in-new-york-report-of-57th-session-of-copuos (2014 Oct 20). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  19. 19.
    Algeria Press Service: Outer Space: Algeria presents in New York UNCOPUOS’ annual report. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/9012-outer-space-algeria-presents-in-new-york-copuos%E2%80%99-annual-report (2015 Oct 20). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  20. 20.
    Algeria Press Service: Satellite Alcomsat1, devoted to telecommunications, to be launched before June 2017. http://en.aps.dz/health-science-tech/14420-satellite-alcomsat1,-devoted-to-telecommunications,-to-be-launched-before-june-2017 (2016 Sept 28). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  21. 21.
    AllAfrica: Algeria: China helps Algeria put first satellite in orbit. https://allafrica.com/stories/201804170264.html (2018 Apr 16). Accessed 3 Feb 2019
  22. 22.
    ARMS-C Framework Agreement: Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of Algeria and the Government of the Republic of Kenya and the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Government of the Republic of South Africa. ftp://ftp.earthobservations.org/AfriGEOSS/Data_Infrastructure_Coordination_Team/References/ARMC%20Agreement%20Docs.pdf (n.d.). Accessed 21 Mar 2017
  23. 23.
    Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): The World Factbook: Algeria. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html (2017). Accessed 18 Mar 2017
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    CRTEAN: The center: presentation. http://www.crtean.org.tn/en/index.php/the-center/presentation (2014). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  26. 26.
    Dennerley, J.A.: Emerging space nations and the development of international regulatory regimes. Space Policy 35 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Geoconnexion: Algerian President inaugurates satellite center. http://www.geoconnexion.com/news/algerian-president-inaugurates-satellite-center (2012 Mar 13). Accessed 14 Mar 2017
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    International Astronautical Federation: Speech delivered by Professor Tahar HADJAR, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, ALGERIA. http://www.iafastro.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/ISF2016_Statement_Algeria.pdf (2016). Accessed 13 Mar 2017
  30. 30.
    Jasentuliyana, N.: Article 1 of the outer space treaty revisited. J. Space Law 17(2) (1989)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire: Décret Présidentiel, N 87–81 du 1987,” Avril 15, 1987, 26 ème Annee (N 16). Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://www.joradp.dz/FTP/Jo-Francais/1987/F1987016.pdf. Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  32. 32.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Présidentiel, N 91-342 du 1991,” Octobre 9, 1991, N 47. Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://41.221.27.114/JO8499/1991/047/FP1500.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar 2017 (French)
  33. 33.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Présidentiel, N 02-48 du 2002,” Janvier 20, 2002, 41è Annee (N 05). Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://www.vitaminedz.org/articlesfiche/1235/1235754.pdf. Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  34. 34.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Exécutif, N 04-12 du 2004,” Janvier 25, 2004, N 06. Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/alg72027.pdf. Accessed 13 Mar 2017 (French)
  35. 35.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Présidentiel, N 06-189 du 2006,” Mai 31, 2006, 45ème Annee (N 36). Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://www.vitaminedz.org/articlesfiche/1244/1244317.pdf. Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  36. 36.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Exécutif, N 07-150 du 2007,” Mai 23, 2007, N 35. Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/alg72019.pdf. Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  37. 37.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Exécutif, N 07-151 du 2007,” Mai 23, 2007, N 35. Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/alg72028.pdf. Accessed 14 Mar 2017 (French)
  38. 38.
    Journal Officiel de la Republic Algeriénne Democratique et Populaire, “Décret Exécutif, N 08-348 du 2008,” Novembre 16, 2008, 47ème Annee (N 63). Imprimerie Officiel, Alger. http://www.vitaminedz.org/articlesfiche/1294/1294871.pdf. Accessed 17 Mar 2017 (French)
  39. 39.
    McDougall, W.A.: Space-Age Europe: Gaullism, Euro-Gaullism, and the American Dilemma. Technol. Cult. 26(2) (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Munsami, V., Nicolaides, A.: Investigation of a governance framework for an African space programme. Space Policy (2017)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ngcofe, L., Gottschalk, K.: The growth of space science in African countries for earth observation in the 21st century. S. Afr. J. Sci. 109(1/2) (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peter, N.: The changing geopolitics of space activities. Space Policy 37 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Platov, V.: Algeria rushes into space. New Eastern Outlook. http://journal-neo.org/2014/01/06/rus-alzhir-ustremlyaetsya-v-kosmos/ (2014 Jan 6). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  44. 44.
    Redfield, P.: The half-life of empire in outer space. Soc. Stud. Sci. 32 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Remiller, J.: Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires étrangères sur le rapport de loi (no 249). Assemblée nationale. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/13/rapports/r0604.asp (2008). Accessed 16 Mar 2017 (French)
  46. 46.
    Revolvy: National Space Program (Algeria). https://www.revolvy.com/topic/National%20Space%20Program%20(Algeria)&uid=1575 (2017). Accessed 20 Mar 2017
  47. 47.
    Serra, J.J.: The CIEES (Inter-arms Special Weapons Test Center). http://www.sat-net.com/serra/sahara_e.htm. Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  48. 48.
    Space in Africa: Algeria to begin work on its 2nd communications satellite. https://africanews.space/algeria-to-begin-work-on-its-2nd-communications-satellite/ (2018 Dec 7). Accessed 30 Jan 2019
  49. 49.
    Space in Africa: Algeria/Japan collaboration on satellite development produces Nanosatellite. https://africanews.space/algeria-japan-collaboration-on-satellite-development-produces-nanosatellite/ (2018 Nov 22). Accessed 30 Jan 2019
  50. 50.
    Space in Africa: How successful is Algerian Communication Satellite “Alcomsat-1”? https://africanews.space/how-successful-is-algerian-communication-satellite-alcomsat-1/ (2019 Jan 8). Accessed 30 Jan 2019
  51. 51.
    SpaceWatch Middle East: Algeria unveils its national space programme to 2040. ThorGroup GmbH. https://spacewatchme.com/2017/12/algeria-unveils-national-space-programme-2040/ (2017 Dec). Accessed 2 Dec 2018
  52. 52.
    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL): Algeria’s first satellite mission completed. https://www.sstl.co.uk/Blog/August-2010/Algeria-s-first-satellite-mission-completed (2010). Accessed 12 Mar 2017
  53. 53.
    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL): First internationally co-ordinated disaster monitoring constellation, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (2002). https://www.sstl.co.uk/30-Firsts/Disaster-Monitoring-Const-2002 (2017). Accessed 12 Mar 2017
  54. 54.
    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL),: First satellite to take 32 m resolution multispectral images at 600 km swath width, AlSAT-1 (2002). https://www.sstl.co.uk/30-Firsts/AlSAT-1-2002 (2017). Accessed 12 Mar 2017
  55. 55.
    Touchent, D.: Algerian law guide. http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Algeria.html (2006). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  56. 56.
    United Kingdom Space Agency: UK Space Agency’s second CubeSat mission is taking shape. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-space-agencys-second-cubesat-mission-is-taking-shape (2015). Accessed 21 Mar 2017
  57. 57.
    United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): Human development report 2016: human development for everyone. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf (2016). Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  58. 58.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Compendium of space debris mitigation standards adopted by States and international organizations. http://www.unoosa.org/documents/pdf/spacelaw/sd/Algeria.pdf (2014). Accessed 20 Mar 2017
  59. 59.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Information furnished in conformity with General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) by states launching objects into orbit or beyond. http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/osoindex/data/documents/dz/a/aac.105inf.408.html (2002). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  60. 60.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Information furnished in conformity with the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. http://www.unoosa.org/documents/pdf/ser609E.pdf (2010). Accessed 12 Mar 2017
  61. 61.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): National legislation and practice relating to the definition and delimitation of outer space. http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_865Add14E.pdf (2013). Accessed 19 Mar 2017
  62. 62.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Questions on suborbital flights for scientific missions and/or for human transportation. http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_1039Add02E.pdf (2013). Accessed 14 Mar 2017
  63. 63.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Questions on the definition and delimitation of outer space: replies from Member States, 2011, 2. http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_889Add09E.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2017
  64. 64.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education (affiliated to the United Nations). http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/psa/regional-centres/index.html (2017). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  65. 65.
    United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA): Status of International Agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2016. http://www.unoosa.org/documents/pdf/spacelaw/treatystatus/AC105_C2_2016_CRP03E.pdf (2016). Accessed 15 Mar 2017
  66. 66.
    United Nations: United Nations treaties and principles on outer space. United Nations Publication, New York (2008). http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/publications/st_space_11rev2E.pdf. Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  67. 67.
    UN-SPIDER: Official inauguration: UN-SPIDER Algeria Regional Support Office. http://www.un-spider.org/news-and-events/news/official-inauguration-un-spider-algeria-regional-support-office (2013). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  68. 68.
    Van Wyk, J.A.: Overview of the implementation status of the five United Nations treaties on outer space in African countries. Afr. Ski./Cieux Afr. 12 (2008)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wood, D., Weigel, A.: Charting the evolution of satellite programs in developing countries—the space technology ladder. Space Policy 28 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    World Meteorological Organisation: Observing systems capability analysis and review tool: AlSat-1. https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/8 (2017). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  71. 71.
    World Meteorological Organisation: Observing systems capability analysis and review tool: AlSat-2. https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/9World (2017). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  72. 72.
    World Meteorological Organisation: Observing systems capability analysis and review tool: AlSat-1B. https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/708 (2017). Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  73. 73.
    Zak, A.: History of the launch site in Kourou, French Guiana. http://www.russianspaceweb.com/kourou_origin.html (2008). Accessed 13 Mar 2017
  74. 74.
    Zia-Ebrahimi, R.: Courting the former colony: Algeria’s special position in French third world policy, 1963. J. N. Afr. Stud. 17(1) (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations