Advertisement

South Africa’s Current Vulnerabilities and Capabilities Relating to Space Weather

  • James WilsonEmail author
  • Nicolas RingasEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Southern Space Studies book series (SOSPST)

Abstract

Space weather is a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the sun that can heavily disrupt human activities. Solar flares and corona mass ejections are bursts of high-energy radiation from the sun that can destroy satellites and possibly disable power systems for weeks, compromising modern societal life. South Africa is particularly vulnerable as a developing country. Fortunately, the South African National Space Agency has advanced space weather monitoring capabilities (such as ionosonde and magnetometer stations), and South Africa has a chance to position itself as and expert in this niche market, and partner with other African countries and the rest of the world. This sharing of data could eventually enable a worldwide early-detection system that could prevent catastrophes caused by space weather.

References

  1. 1.
    Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology—Space Weather Services: About Ionospheric Scintillation. Available at: http://www.sws.bom.gov.au/Satellite/6/3. Accessed 01 Apr 2018
  2. 2.
    Bernhardi, E.H., Celliers, P., Gaunt, C.: Improvement in the modelling of geomagnetically induced currents in southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 104 (2008 Aug)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cilliers, P., Oyeddokun, D.: Improved methods for surface impedance estimation in modelling of geomagnetically induced currents in power networks. In: CIGRE, Southern Africa Regional Conference, Nov 2017Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cilliers, P., Mitchell, C., Opperman, B.: Characterization of the Ionosphere Over the South Atlantic Ocean by Means of Ionospheric Tomography Using Dual Frequency GPS Signals Received on Board a Research Ship. Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, Hermanus, South Africa (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    CMEs and Flares (Page 1). Coronal weather report. Available at: http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/coronalweather/CMEsFlares/. Accessed 13 Mar 2018
  6. 6.
    Habarulema, J.: Measuring the Ionosphere: Emphasis on Ionosondes. EISCAT and 42AM Radar School, SANSA, Sept 2015Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    INTERMAGNET: Geomagnetic Information Nodes (GINS), Feb 2017. Available at: http://www.intermagnet.org/gins-eng.php. Accessed 03 Apr 2018
  8. 8.
    INTERMAGNET: International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network, Feb 2017. Available at: http://www.intermagnet.org/index-eng.php. Accessed 03 Apr 2018
  9. 9.
    International GNSS Service: About Us. Available at: http://www.igs.org/about. Accessed 01 Apr 2018
  10. 10.
    International Space Environment Services: South African National Space Agency (SANSA). Available at: http://www.spaceweather.org/ISES/rwc/rwc_za.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2018
  11. 11.
    International Space Environment Services. The History of ISES. Available at: http://www.spaceweather.org/ISES/intro/history/history.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2018
  12. 12.
    International Space Environment Services: What Do We Do. Available at: http://www.spaceweather.org/ISES/intro/wdwd/wdwd.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2018
  13. 13.
    JSE: History and Company Overview—Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Available at: https://www.jse.co.za/about/history-company-overview (2018). Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  14. 14.
    Kotze, P., Cilliers, P., Sutcliffe, P.: The role of SANSA’s geomagnetic observation network in space weather monitoring: a review. Space Weather 13, 656–664 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015sw001279
  15. 15.
    Marsden, R.: Interplanetary Aspects of Space Weather. Research & Scientific Support Dept. of ESAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matzka, J.: Geomagnetic Observatories. Helmholtz Centre Potsdam German Research Centre for Geosciences. Available at: https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/section/geomagnetism/topics/geomagnetic-observatories/. Accessed 04 Apr 2018
  17. 17.
    McKinnel, L.: South African Ionospheric Stations. ISES Regional Warning Centre for Africa, SANSA. Available: http://spaceweather.hmo.ac.za/index.php?action=info&topic=IONOSONDE. Accessed 05 Apr 2018
  18. 18.
    Murtagh, B.: Space Weather Impacts on Aviation Systems. In: Presentation at the International Air Safety & Climate Change Conference (IASCC), Cologne, Sept 2010Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    NASA: How space weather affects space exploration | NASA. Available at: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/rbsp/science/rbsp-spaceweather-human.html (2017). Accessed 13 Mar 2018
  20. 20.
    Nevill, G. Pay-TV in Africa is thriving | The Media Online. Available at: http://themediaonline.co.za/2017/04/pay-tv-in-africa-is-thriving/ (2017). Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  21. 21.
    NRF Research Equipment Database: The South African Ionospheric Geophysics and Geomagnetic Experimental Resource (SNIGGER). South African National Research Fund. Available at: http://eqdb.nrf.ac.za/equipment/other/south-african-ionospheric-geophysics-and-geomagnetic-experimental-resource-snigger. Accessed 04 Apr 2018
  22. 22.
    Prigg, M.: NASA prediction system for ‘doomsday’ solar storms | Daily Mail Online. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4161180/NASA-prediction-doomsday-solar-storms.html (2017). Accessed 13 Mar 2018
  23. 23.
    Riley, P.: On the probability of occurrence of extreme space weather events. Space Weather 10(2) (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    SANSA Space Science: Space Science in the new Space Agency. Available at: http://www.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/281/events/physics_talks/121017%2520SANSA.pdf
  25. 25.
    SANSA Space Weather Centre: Current Conditions—Ionograms. Daily conditions posted by SANSA at: https://spaceweather.sansa.org.za/products-and-services/current-conditions/ionograms. Accessed 01 Apr 2018
  26. 26.
    SANSA Space Weather Centre: Instrument Map. URL: https://spaceweather.sansa.org.za/space-weather-information/resources/instrument-map. Last accessed Mar 2018
  27. 27.
    Schieb, P.: Geomagnetic Storms. CENTRA Technology on behalf of Office of Risk Management and Analysis, United States Department of Homeland Security (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schrijver, C.J., et al.: Understanding space weather to shield society: a global road map for 2015 to 2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS. Adv. Space Res. 55(12) (2015, June). COSPAR, Published by Elsevier LtdGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Snowden, S.: ROSAT Guest Observatory Facility—South Atlantic Anomaly. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA. URL: https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/rosat/gallery/misc_saad.html. Accessed 31 Mar 2018
  30. 30.
    South African Government. Land Survey Act 8 of 1997. Available at: http://sagc.org.za/pdf/legislation/Land%20Survey%20Act%208%20of%201997.pdf
  31. 31.
    Stebbins, B.: Sun-Burned: Space Weather’s Impact on US National Security. School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama (2013)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    SuperDARN CANADA: What is SuperDARN. Available at http://superdarn.ca/about/superdarn (2016). Accessed 01 April 2018
  33. 33.
    Thiel, S.: Modelling and inversion of magnetotelluric data for 2-D and 3-D lithospheric structure, with application to obducted and subducted terranes. Ph.D. thesis, University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (2008)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van Harte, M.: Application of geomagnetic disturbance vulnerability assessments using the Eskom main transmission system model. In: Eskom, Cigre Paris Conference (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vorster, P., Koch, S.: TrigNet, South Africa’s GNSS baste station network. Dept. of Rural Development and Land Reform, Article published by EE Publishers, Nov 2014. Available at http://www.ee.co.za/article/trignet-south-africas-gnss-base-station-network.html. Accessed 02 Apr 2018
  36. 36.
    Wonnacott, R.: TrigNet: The South African network of continuously operating GPS base stations. Surveys & Mapping—Chief Directorate, Space Geodesy Workshop, Matjiesfontein, Nov 2007Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations