Advertisement

The Role of Phonological Processing and Oral Language in the Acquisition of Reading Skills in Devanagari

  • Nandini Chatterjee SinghEmail author
  • Sumathi T. A 
Chapter
Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS, volume 17)

Abstract

We examined the relative contributions of phonological processing and oral language on word and non-word reading abilities in Devanagari in 230 children from grades 1 to grade 5. Phonological skills were assessed using tasks of rhyming and syllable replacement while oral language was assessed using semantic and verbal fluency. Phonological awareness made independent contributions to word reading across all grades. In addition, across grades 1 and 2, akshara recognition significantly explained word reading while in grades 3–5, oral language fluency was uniquely associated with word reading performance. Our study provides new insights on reading acquisition in Devanagari and adds to a growing body of literature on reading in akshara orthographies.

Keywords

Akshara Devanagari Fluency India Oral Orthography Phonological 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge M. Joshi for valuable comments on the manuscript, Geet Oberoi (Orkids Centre for Learning Disabilities), Bhoomika R. Kar (University of Allahabad), Kate Currawala (Maharashtra Dyslexia Association) and Kshipra Vaidya (Shanta Vaidya Memorial Foundation) for data collection and Cognitive Science Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology, India, for financial support.

References

  1. Badian, N. A. (1994). Preschool prediction: Orthographic and phonological skills, and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 44(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bright, W. A. (2000). Matter of typology: Alphasyllabaries and Abugidas. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 30, 63–71.Google Scholar
  3. Byrne, B., Freebody, P., & Gates, A. (1992). Longitudinal data on the relations of word-reading strategies to comprehension, reading time, and phonemic awareness. Reading Research Quarterly, 27(2), 140–151.  https://doi.org/10.2307/747683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Byrne, B. J. (1998). The foundation of literacy: The child’s acquisition of the alphabetic principle. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  5. Carroll, J., Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., & Stevenson, J. (2003). The development of phonological awareness in pre-school children. Developmental Psychology, 39, 913–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coulmas, F. (1989). The writing systems of the world. Oxford, UK: B. Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Department of Elementary Education and Literacy, Department of Secondary and Higher Education. (2005). Annual report. New Delhi, India: Government of India.Google Scholar
  9. Florit, E., & Cain, K. (2011). The simple view of reading: Is it valid for different types of alphabetic orthographies? Educational Psychology Review, 23, 553–576.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-011-9175-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. E. (1990). Phonological skills and learning to read. London, UK: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading ability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6–10.  https://doi.org/10.1177/074193258600700104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ho, C. S. H., & Bryant, P. (1997). Development of phonological awareness of Chinese children in Hong Kong. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 26(1), 109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoover, W. A., & Gough, P. B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2(2), 127–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang, H. S., & Hanley, J. R. (1994). An overview of research on phonological awareness and reading ability. Journal of National Taipei Teachers College, 7, 115–168.Google Scholar
  15. Huang, H. S., & Hanley, J. R. (1995). Phonological awareness and visual skills in learning to read Chinese and English. Cognition, 54(1), 73–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Joshi, R. M. (2014). Literacy in Kannada, an alphasyllabic orthography. In South and Southeast Asian psycholinguistics (pp. 202–211). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Karanth, P. (2006). The Kagunita of Kannada—Learning to read and write an Indian alphasyllabary. In Handbook of orthography and literacy (pp. 389–404).Google Scholar
  18. Katzev, M., Tüscher, O., Hennig, J., Weiller, C., & Kaller, C. P. (2013). Revisiting the functional specialization of left inferior frontal gyrus in phonological and semantic fluency: The crucial role of task demands and individual ability. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(18), 7837–7845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kendeou, P., van den Broek, P., White, M. J., & Lynch, J. S. (2009). Predicting reading comprehension in early elementary school: The independent contributions of oral language and decoding skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 765–778.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mishra, R., & Stainthorp, R. (2007). The relationship between phonological awareness and word reading accuracy in Oriya and English: A study of Oriya-speaking fifth-graders. Journal of Research in Reading, 30, 23–37.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00326.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lonigan, C. J., Burgess, S. R., & Anthony, J. L. (2000). Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: Evidence from a latent-variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 36(5), 596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luo, L., Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2010). Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals. Cognition, 114(1), 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luo, Y. C., Chen, X., Deacon, S. H., Zhang, J., & Yin, L. (2013). The role of visual processing in learning to read Chinese characters. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(1), 22–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J., & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition, 7, 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McBride-Chang, C., & Suk-Han Ho, C. (2005). Predictors of beginning reading in Chinese and English: A 2-year longitudinal study of Chinese kindergartners. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 117–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nag, S. (2007). Early reading in Kannada: The pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nag, S., Chiat, S., Torgerson, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2014). Literacy, foundation learning and assessment in developing countries. DFID publication retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/305150/Literacy-foundation-learning-assessment.pdf.
  28. Nag, S., & Perfetti, C. A. (2014). Reading and writing: Insights from alphasyllabaries of south. Writing Systems Research, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17586801.2014.883787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2012). Reading in an alphasyllabary: Implications for a universal theory of learning to read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(5), 402–423.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2011.576352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nag, S., Treiman, R., & Snowling, M. J. (2010). Learning to spell in an alphasyllabary: The case of Kannada. Writing Systems Research, 1(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  31. Nakamura, P. R., Koda, K., & Joshi, R. M. (2013). Biliteracy acquisition in Kannada and English: A developmental study. Writing Systems Research, 6(1), 132–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2005). Pathways to reading: The role of oral language in the transition to reading. Developmental Psychology, 41(2), 428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 554–566.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ouellette, G. P., & Beers, A. (2010). A not-so-simple view of reading: How oral vocabulary and visual-word recognition complicate the story. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, 189–208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-008-9159-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Perfetti, C. A. (2003). The universal grammar of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7, 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perfetti, C. A., & Hart, L. (2002). The lexical quality hypothesis. In L. Verhoeven, C. Elbro, & P. Reitsma (Eds.), Precursors of functional literacy (pp. 189–213). Amsterdam, The Netherlands/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rao, C., & Singh, N. C. (2015). Visual complexity modulates reading in the brain. Brain and Language, 141, 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raven, J. (2004). Progressive matrices and Crichton vocabulary scale. London, UK: Pearson.Google Scholar
  39. Reddy, P., & Koda, K. (2013). Orthographic constraints on phonological awareness in biliteracy development. Writing Systems Research, 5, 110–130.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17586801.2012.748639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scarborough, H. S. (2001). Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis)abilities:Evidence, theory, and practice. In S. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 97–110). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. Sénéchal, M., Ouellette, G., & Rodney, D. (2006). The misunderstood giant: On the predictive role of early vocabulary to future reading. In S. B. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 173–182). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Share, D., & Daniels, P. (2016). Aksharas, alphasyllabaries, abugidas, alphabets and orthographic depth: Reflections on Rimzhim, Katz and Fowler (2014). Writing Systems, 8, 17–31.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17586801.2015.1016395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Siok, W. T., & Fletcher, P. (2001). The role of phonological awareness and visual-orthographic skills in Chinese reading acquisition. Developmental Psychology, 37(6), 886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sircar, S., & Nag, S. (2013). Akshara-syllable mappings in Bengali: A language-specific skill for reading. In South and Southeast Asian (pp. 202–211). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Tilstra, J., McMaster, K., van den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., & Rapp, D. (2009). Simple but complex: Components of the simple view of reading across grade levels. Journal of Research in Reading, 32, 383–401.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01401.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tiwari, S., Nair, R., & Krishnan, G. (2011). A preliminary investigation of akshara knowledge in the Malayalam alphasyllabary: Extension of Nag’s (2007) study. Writing Systems Research, 3(2), 145–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Treiman, R., & Breaux, A. M. (1982). Common phoneme and overall similarity relations among spoken syllables: Their use by children and adults. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 11, 569–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vaid, J., & Gupta, A. (2002). Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: The case of Devanagari. Brain and Language, 81(1–3), 679–690.  https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vasanta, D. (2004). Processing phonological information in a semi-syllabic script:Developmental data from Telugu. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 59–78.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:READ.0000013830.55257.3a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Language, Literacy and Music LaboratoryNational Brain Research CentreGurgaonIndia
  2. 2.R & D Engineer(Project), Language, Literacy and Music LaboratoryNational Brain Research CentreGurgaonIndia

Personalised recommendations