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Perspective Tools for Optogenetics and Photopharmacology: From Design to Implementation

  • Dmitrii M. Nikolaev
  • Maxim S. Panov
  • Andrey A. Shtyrov
  • Vitaly M. Boitsov
  • Sergey Yu. Vyazmin
  • Oleg B. Chakchir
  • Igor P. Yakovlev
  • Mikhail N. RyazantsevEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Chemical Physics book series (CHEMICAL, volume 119)

Abstract

Optogenetics and photopharmacology are two perspective modern methodologies for control and monitoring of biological processes from an isolated cell to complex cell assemblies and organisms. Both methodologies use optically active components that being introduced into the cells of interest allow for optical control or monitoring of different cellular processes. In optogenetics, genetic materials are introduced into the cells to express light-sensitive proteins or protein constructs. In photopharmacology, photochromic compounds are delivered into a cell directly but not produced inside the cell from a genetic material. The development of both optogenetics and photopharmacology is inseparable from the design of improved tools (protein constructs or organic molecules) optimized for specific applications. Herein, we review the main tools that are used in modern optogenetics and photopharmaclogy and describe the types of cellular processes that can be controlled by these tools. Although a large number of different kinds of optogenetic tools exist, their performance can be evaluated with a limited number of metrics that have to be optimized for specific applications. We classify these metrics and describe the ways of their improvement.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant numbers 15-29-03872 ofi_m and 16-04-00494 A) and by the program No. 32 of the Basic Research of Presidium RAS “Nanostructures: physics, chemistry, biology, basics of technology”. The work was supported by the Skolkovo Foundation (grant agreement for Russian educational and scientific organization No. 7 dd 19.12.2017) and the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (General agreement No. 3663-MRA dd. 25.12.2017). The work was also supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dmitrii M. Nikolaev
    • 1
  • Maxim S. Panov
    • 2
  • Andrey A. Shtyrov
    • 1
  • Vitaly M. Boitsov
    • 1
  • Sergey Yu. Vyazmin
    • 1
  • Oleg B. Chakchir
    • 1
  • Igor P. Yakovlev
    • 3
  • Mikhail N. Ryazantsev
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Saint-Petersburg Academic University – Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre RASSaint PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical AcademySaint PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.Saint-Petersburg Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of SciencesSaint PetersburgRussia

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