Effects of Steel Scrap Oxidation on Scrap Preheating Process in an Electric Arc Furnace

  • Guangwu Tang
  • Yuchao Chen
  • Armin K. Silaen
  • Yury Krotov
  • Chenn Q. ZhouEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


The electric arc furnace (EAF) is used to produce steel, primarily from steel scraps, using electricity and chemical energy. Oxy-fuel burners firing natural gas (NG) are widely used in EAF operation during both the scrap preheating and melting stages. Excess oxygen is normally used to improve heating efficiency. Steel scrap oxidation increases the scrap temperature and reduces the scrap melting point. In this paper, a numerical study is conducted to simulate the steel scrap preheating process using oxy-fuel combustion. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed with detailed consideration of gas flow, oxy-fuel combustion, scrap oxidation and multi-mode heat transfer between gas and solid scrap. The effects of scrap oxidation on the scrap preheating were also investigated. Model validation was conducted using experimental data obtained from a small-scale scrap preheating furnace. The model can be applied to industrial EAFs to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the scrap preheating process.


Electric arc furnace CFD Combustion Heat transfer 



The authors would like to thank the Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium (SMSVC) members for funding this project. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest is also gratefully acknowledged for providing all the resources required for this work. The authors also appreciate the help from Andrew Spencer (Steel Dynamics), Hamzah Alshawarghi (Praxair), Jianghua Li (AK Steel), Joe Maiolo (Praxair), John Lowry (Nucor), Michael Lowry (ArcelorMittal), Sunday Abraham (SSAB) and Yufeng Wang (SSAB). The authors also appreciate the help from Charlie Capek for proofreading.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guangwu Tang
    • 1
  • Yuchao Chen
    • 1
  • Armin K. Silaen
    • 1
  • Yury Krotov
    • 2
  • Chenn Q. Zhou
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation, Purdue University NorthwestHammondUSA
  2. 2.Steel Dynamics Inc.ButlerUSA

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