Advertisement

Experimental Study on the Mechanism of Lead Vapor Condensation Under Vacuum

  • Huan Zhang
  • Zhenghao Pu
  • Yifu LiEmail author
  • Junjie Xu
  • Baoqiang Xu
  • Bin Yang
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Under vacuum conditions, ranging 5 to 80 Pa, orthogonal experiments were conducted by controlling the distillation temperature and holding time to study the lead vapor condensation conditions and nucleation growth mechanism. The results showed that the condensing temperature range of lead vapor concentrates in the region between 510 and 720 °C. Among them, the condensation effect was best in the region from 550 to 660 °C, and more than 80% of the lead condensed in this region. When the ambient pressure changed from 5 to 80 Pa, the temperature of the lead vapor condensate would change around 50 °C. By scanning electron microscopy, the condensation of lead vapor was found to be droplet condensation. The presence of temperature, pressure and gas all affected the nucleation and growth of lead. As the degree of undercooling increases, the condensed particles of lead gradually decreased.

Keywords

Lead vapor Condensation Nucleation Vacuum 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors were grateful for financial support from the National Nature Science Fund of China (grant NO. 51,504,115), the NSCF-Yunnan Joint Fund (grant NO. U1502271) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant NO. 2016YFC0400400).

References

  1. 1.
    Irfandi AF (2015) Analisis kandungan kadmium (cd) dan timbal (pb) pada air sumur gali penduduk di sekitar industri daur ulang aki, dan gangguan, kesehatan pada masyarakat, desa bandar khalipah kabupaten, deli serdang, tahun 2013, Lingkungan Dan Kesehatan Kerja, 2Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deng YH, Cao XM, Zhang QG (2010) Study of solar energy battery PbSO4 stored system. Electron Qual 10:66–68Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou JT, Xiao QH (2002) The Intelligent Management of Plumbum Acid Storage Battery. Packag Eng 23:88–89Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou Y, Lu DH, Zhang M (2017) Performance test of lead steel pipe damper. China Civil Eng J 1:46–52Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang ZP, Wen ZG (2018) Life cycle assessment of recycled lead alloy from waste lead-acid battery. Acta Sci Circum 3:1245–1255Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang ML (2016) Study on recycling and harmless treatment process of lead-rich slag, pp 11–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogundiran MB, Buluku TG, Babayemi JO (2015) Waste rechargeable electric lamps: characterisation and recovery of lead from their lead-acid batteries. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 19:1–9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tong YS, Zhang K, Cui H (2011) Production practice of lead recovery from waste lead-acid batteries and lead wastes. Chin Lab Man 4:165–167Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin DQ (2011) Study on new process of recycling and utilization of waste lead storage battery and lead anode slime, Central south universityGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yuan PX, Li CL (2006) Production practice of reducing lead in blast furnace slag by SKS lead smelting process. China Nonferrous Met 6:10–12Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhu WY (2004) Ways to reduce lead in blast furnace slag. Hunan Nonferrous Met 5:26–28Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li SD, Shan TY (2011) Discussion on process of extraction indium from slag with plumbum. Hunan Nonferrous Met 4:22–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huan Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhenghao Pu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yifu Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Junjie Xu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Baoqiang Xu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bin Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum MetallurgyKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.The State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean UtilizationKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations