Advertisement

The Heart of Conversation: Using State Space Grids to Disentangle Cardiovascular and Affect Dynamics During Couple Interaction

  • Clint L. Broadbent
  • Todd A. Spencer
  • Brandt C. GardnerEmail author
  • Nathan Hardy
Chapter
Part of the Emerging Issues in Family and Individual Resilience book series (EIIFR)

Abstract

We demonstrate the use of the state space grid as a within-individual measure of cardio-affective response. Data comes from a handful of randomly selected participant couples who were part of an earlier study. Couples were asked to have a conversation about a recent incident where they felt hurt or offended in their relationship. BioPAC hardware was used to collect cardiovascular data. Following the conversation, each partner provided a continuous self-report of their affect state as they re-watched the video of the conversation. Inter-beat interval was selected as the cardiovascular variable due to its near-continuous nature and similarity in structure to the affect data. The purpose of this exercise is to first explore the viability of creating within-subject measures that are composites of both affective and physiological data and the variables that might be generated and tested via traditional statistical analyses. We also explore the emergence of pattern and structure when combining two streams of data from different sources. We finally look at the possibility of physiological synchrony between romantic partners by loading both partners’ IBI streams into the state space grid.

Keywords

Couples Attachment Affect Relational dynamics State space grid 

References

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bell, S. M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41, 49–67.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1127388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowlby, J. M. (1969). Attachment and loss (Attachment) (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Brassard, A., Lussier, Y., & Shaver, P. R. (2009). Attachment, perceived conflict, and couple satisfaction: Test of a mediational dyadic model. Family Relations, 58, 634–646.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2009.00580.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burr, B. K., Hubler, D. S., Larzelere, R. E., & Gardner, B. C. (2013). Applying the actor-partner interdependence model to micro-level analyses of marital partner affect during couple conversations: An exploratory investigation. Marriage & Family Review, 49, 284–308.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2012.762446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Busby, D. M., Christensen, C., Crane, D. R., & Larson, J. H. (1995). A revision of the dyadic adjustment scale for use with distressed and nondistressed couples: Construct hierarchy and multidimensional scales. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21, 289–308.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1995.tb00163.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carrere, S., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Predicting divorce among newlyweds from the first three minutes of a marital conflict discussion. Family Process, 38, 293–301.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1999.00293.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotional behavior in long-term marriage. Psychology and Aging, 10, 140–149.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.10.1.140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Creasey, G., & Ladd, A. (2005). Generalized and specific attachment representations: Unique and interactive roles in predicting conflict behaviors in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(8), 1026–1038.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204274096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crowell, J. A., Treboux, D., Gao, Y., Fyffe, C., Pan, H., & Waters, E. (2002). Assessing secure base behavior in adulthood: Development of a measure, links to adult attachment representations and relations to couples’ communication and reports of relationships. Developmental Psychology, 38, 679–693.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.38.5.679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 350–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gardner, B. C., & Wampler, K. S. (2008). Uncovering dynamical properties in the emotional system of married couples. Contemporary Family Therapy, 30, 111–126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/210591-008-9056-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottman, J. M. (1979). Detecting cyclicity in social interaction. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 338–348.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gottman, J. M., & Notarius, C. I. (2000). Decade review: Observing marital interaction. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 927–947.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00927.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottman, J. M., Levenson, R. W. (1992). Marital processes predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, physiology, and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(2), 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gottman, J. M. (1998). Psychology and the study of marital processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1), 169–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gottman, J., Gottman, J. (2017). The natural principles of love. Journal of Family Theory Review, 9(1), 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gottman, J. M., Notarius, C. I. (2002). Marital research in the 20th century and a research agenda for the 21st century. Family Process, 41(2), 159–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gottman, J. M., Coan, J., Carrere, S., Swanson, C. (1998). Predicting marital happiness and stability from newlywed interactions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(1), 5.Google Scholar
  20. Graham, J. M., Unterschute, M. S. (2014). A reliability generalization meta-analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(1), 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). Dynamic systems methods for models of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15(03), 641–669Google Scholar
  22. Griffin, W. A. (1993). Transitions from negative affect during marital interaction: Husband and wife differences. Journal of Family Psychology, 6, 230–244.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.6.3.230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Griffin, W. A. (2002). Affect pattern recognition: Using discrete hidden Markov models to discriminate distressed from nondistressed couples. Marriage & Family Review, 34, 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Griffin, W. A., & Li, X. (2016). Using Bayesian nonparametric hidden semi-Markov models to disentangle affect processes during marital interaction. PLoS One, 11, e0155706.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Henry, C. S., Morris, A. S., & Harrist, A. W. (2015). Family resilience: Moving into the third wave. Family Relations, 64, 22–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hollenstein, T. (2013). State space grids: Depicting dynamics across development. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hollenstein, T., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. (2016). Affective patterns in triadic family interactions: Associations with adolescent depression. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 85–96.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579415000309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hazan, C., Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 511–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, M. D., Cohan, C. L., Davila, J., Lawrence, E., Rogge, R. D., Karney, B. R., … Bradbury, T. N. (2005). Problem-solving skills and affective expressions as predictors of change in marital satisfaction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 15–27.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.1.15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Bane, C., Glaser, R., & Malarkey, W. B. (2003). Love, marriage, and divorce: Newlyweds’ stress hormones foreshadow relationship changes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 176–188.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lamey, A., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M. D., & Granic, I. (2004). GridWare (Version 1.1). [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://statespacegrids.org
  32. Levenson, R. W., & Gottman, J. M. (1983). Marital interaction: Physiological linkage and affective exchange. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 587–597.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.3.587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levenson, R. W., & Gottman, J. M. (1985). Physiological and affective predictors of change in relationship satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 85–94.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lougheed, J., Hollenstein, T., & Lewis, M. D. (2016). Maternal regulation of daughters’ emotion during conflicts from early to mid-adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26, 610–616.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mattson, R. E., Frame, L. E., & Johnson, M. D. (2011). Premarital affect as a predictor of postnuptial marital satisfaction. Personal Relationships, 18, 532–546.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01315.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McCarthy, M. E., King, A. R., & Levenson, R. W. (2002, October). Reactivity and resiliency in older adults: A twelve-year follow up. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Pietromonaco, P. R., Greenwood, D., & Barrett, L. F. (2004). Conflict in adult close relationships: An attachment perspective. In W. S. Rholes & J. A. Simpson (Eds.), Adult attachment: Theory, research, and clinical implications (pp. 267–299). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  38. Provenzi, L., Borgatti, R., Menozzi, G., & Montirosso, R. (2015). A dynamic system analysis of dyadic flexibility and stability across the face-to-face still-face procedure: Application of the state space grid. Infant Behavior and Development, 38, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raush, H. L., Barry, W. A., Hertel, R. K., & Swain, M. A. (1974). Communication conflict and marriage. Oxford, UK: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Robles, T. F., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2003). The physiology of marriage: Pathways to health. Physiology & Behavior, 79, 409–416.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00160-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robles, T. F., Slatcher, R. B., Trombello, J. M., & McGinn, M. M. (2014). Marital quality and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 140–187.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schuldberg, D., & Gottlieb, J. (2002). Dynamics and correlates of microscopic changes in affect. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 6(3), 231–257.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, D. A., Vivian, D., & O’Leary, K. D. (1990). Longitudinal prediction of marital discord from premarital expressions of affect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 790–798.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.6.790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sesemann, E. M., Kruse, J., Gardner, B. C., Broadbent, C. L., & Spencer, T. A. (2016). Observed attachment and self-report affect within romantic relationships. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy, 16(2), 102–121.Google Scholar
  45. Thompson, R. A. (1990). Emotion and self-regulation. In Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. 1988: Socioemotional development. Current theory and research in motivation (Vol. 36, pp. 367–467). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  46. Thomsen, D. G., & Gilbert, D. G. (1998). Factors characterizing marital conflict states and traits: Physiological, affective, behavioral, and neurotic variable contributions to marital conflict and satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 833–855.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00064-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Waters, E., Merrick, S., Treboux, D., Crowell, J., & Albersheim, L. (2000). Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood: A 20-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 71, 684–689.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Waters, E., Cummings, E. M. (2000). A secure base from which to explore close relationships. Child Development, 71(1), 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waldinger, R. J., Moore, C., Schulz, M. S. (2003). Child abuse and adult attachment: Links with emotion during video recall of couple interactions. Workshop presented at the annual conference of the Society for Research in Child Development. FL: Tampa.Google Scholar
  50. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yuan, J. W., McCarthy, M., Holley, S. R., & Levenson, R. W. (2010). Physiological down-regulation and positive emotion in marital interaction. Emotion, 10, 467–474.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018699CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clint L. Broadbent
    • 1
    • 2
  • Todd A. Spencer
    • 1
  • Brandt C. Gardner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nathan Hardy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family ScienceOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Teacher Education & Family DevelopmentSouthern Utah UniversityCedar CityUSA

Personalised recommendations