Advertisement

The Psychobiology of Family Dynamics: Bidirectional Relationships with Adrenocortical Attunement

  • Jennifer Byrd-CravenEmail author
  • Nikki Clauss
Chapter
Part of the Emerging Issues in Family and Individual Resilience book series (EIIFR)

Abstract

Coordination within physiological systems, particularly those systems known to be responsive to the social environment, such as the stress response systems, has become increasingly viewed as a way to index bidirectional social information processing within close relationships. Most studies have focused on coordination of stress system responding within mother–child or romantic dyads. These studies have demonstrated that adrenocortical attunement, or coordination within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is predictive of relationship quality and sensitivity. Mother–infant attunement is predictive of emotional regulation and outcomes associated with resilience later in development. Very few studies, however, have examined attunement within the entire family, specifically neglecting to examine fathers’ coordination with their children and partners, and how that may influence child outcomes. We also know little regarding the predictive factors and outcomes of physiological coordination in at-risk populations. We argue that examining physiological attunement within at-risk families can serve as a vital biomarker that signals important developmental outcomes. Importantly, changes in family biomarkers could be used as an unbiased index of the effectiveness of intervention programs. We discuss the information this perspective is likely to yield and its ability to promote resilience within families.

Keywords

Stress Biopsychosocial attunement HPA axis Child development Family dynamics 

References

  1. Beck, L. A., Pietromonaco, P. R., DeBuse, C. J., Powers, S. I., & Sayer, A. G. (2013). Spouses’ attachment pairings predict neuroendocrine, behavioral, and psychological responses to marital conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 388–424.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beebe, B., Alson, D., Jaffe, J., Feldstein, S., & Crown, C. (1988). Vocal congruence in mother- infant play. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 17, 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647–670.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1131166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2013). Beyond risk, resilience, and dysregulation: Phenotypic plasticity and human development. Development and Psychopathology 25(4pt2):1243–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bigelow, A. E., MacLean, K., Proctor, J., Myatt, T., Gillis, R., & Power, M. (2010). Maternal sensitivity throughout infancy: Continuity and relation to attachment. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 50–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blair, C., & Raver, C.C. (2012). Individual development and evolution: Experiential canalization of self-regulation. Developmental Psychology. 48:647–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bornstein, M.H. (2009). Toward a model of culture <-> parent <-> child interactions. In A. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  8. Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579405050145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (2008). Internal working models in attachment relationships: Elaborating a central construct in attachment theory. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 102–127). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  10. Byrd-Craven, J., Auer, B. J., Granger, D. A., & Massey, A. R. (2012). The father-daughter dance: The relationship between father-daughter relationship quality and daughters’ stress response. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 87–94.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Byrd-Craven, J., Geary, D. C., Vigil, J. M., & Hoard, M. K. (2007). One mate or two? Life history traits and reproductive variation in low-income women. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39, 469–480.Google Scholar
  12. Byrne, R. W., & Whiten, A. (1988). Machiavellian intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P. M., & Meaney, M. J. (1998). Maternal care during infancy regulates the development of neural systems mediating the expression of fearfulness in the rat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 5335–5340.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.9.5335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter, A. S., Garrity-Rokous, F. E., Chazan-Cohen, R., Little, C., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2001). Maternal depression and comorbidity: Predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 18–26.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200101000-00012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cerqueira, J. J., Mailliet, F., Almeida, O. F. X., Jay, T. M., & Sousa, N. (2007). The prefrontal cortex as a key target of maladaptive response to stress. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 2781–2787.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4372-06.2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Champagne, F., & Meaney, M. J. (2001). Like mother, like daughter: Evidence for non-genomic transmission of parental behavior and stress responsivity. Progress in Brain Research, 133, 287–302.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(01)33022-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clauss, N., Byrd-Craven, J., Kennison, S. M., & Chua, K. J. (2018). The roles of mothers’ partner satisfaction and mother-infant communication in mother-infant adrenocortical attunement. Adaptive Human Behavior & Physiology, 4(1), 91–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Del Giudice, M. (2009). Sex, attachment, and the development of reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brian Sciences, 32, 1–67.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X09000016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Del Giudice, M. (2015). The life history model of psychopathology explains the structure of psychiatric disorders and the emergence of the p factor: A simulation study. Clinical Psychological Science, 32, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702615583628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1562–1592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eckerman, C. O., Oehler, J. M., Hannan, T. E., & Moliter, A. (1995). The development prior to term age of very prematurely born newborns’ responsiveness in an en face exchange. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 283–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383(95)90017-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis, B. J. (2004) Timing of Pubertal Maturation in Girls: An Integrated Life History Approach. Psychological Bulletin 130(6):920–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellis, B. J., McFadyen-Ketchum, S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1999). Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: A longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 387–401.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.2.387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ellis, B. J., Jackson, J. J., & Boyce, W. T. (2006). The stress response systems: Universality and adaptive individual differences. Developmental Review, 26, 175-212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2006.02.004.
  25. Ellis, B. J., & Boyce, T. W. (2008). Biological Sensitivity to Context. Current Directions in Psychological Science 17(3):183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Eunsuk Cho, Kalin, N. H. (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: Effects on cortisol and behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 52(8), 776–784.Google Scholar
  27. Feldman, R. (2007). Parent-infant synchrony and the construction of shared timing; physiological precursors, developmental outcomes, and risk conditions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 329–354.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01701.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feldman, R. (2012). Parent-infant synchrony: A biobehavioral model of mutual influences in the formation of affiliative bonds. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 77, 42–51.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.2011.00660.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feldman, R., & Eidelman, A. I. (2007). Maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of infant-mother and infant-father synchrony in preterm and full-term infants: The role of neonatal vagal tone. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 290–302.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.20220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Field, T. M. (2002). Prenatal effects of maternal depression. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 59–88). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  https://doi.org/10.1037/10449-003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Figueredo, A. J., Vasquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S. M. R., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., … Jacobs, W. J. (2006). Consilience and life history theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review, 26, 243–275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2006.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fletcher, K. L., Perez, A., Hooper, C., & Claussen, A. H. (2005). Responsiveness and attention during picture‐book reading in 18‐month‐old to 24‐month‐old toddlers at risk. Early Child Development and Care, 175, 63–83.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443042000230339
  33. Flinn, M. (2006). Evolution and ontogeny of stress response to social challenges in the human child. Developmental Review, 26(2), 138–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleming, A. S., O’Day, D. H., & Kraemer, G. W. (1999). Neurobiology of mother–infant interactions: Experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 673–685.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(99)00011-1
  35. Flinn, M. V., Nepomnaschy, P. A., Muehlenbein, M. P., & Ponzi, D. (2011). Evolutionary functions of early social modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis development in humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1611–1629.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flinn, M. V., Quinlan, R. L., Ward, C. V., & Coe, M. K. (2007). Evolution of the human family: Cooperative males, long social childhoods, smart mothers, and extended kin networks. In C. Salmon & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Family relationships (pp. 16–38). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fuchs, A., Mohler, E., Resch, F., & Kaess, M. (2016). Sex-specific differences in adrenocortical attunement in mothers with a history of childhood abuse and their 5-month-old boys and girls. Journal of Neural Transmission, 123, 1085–1094.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-016-1525-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Francis, D.D. & Meaney, M.J. (1999). Maternal care and the development of stress responses. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 128–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geary, D. C. & Bjourklund, D. F. (2000). Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. Child Development, 71, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Geary, D. C., & Flinn, M. V. (2002). Sex differences in behavioral and hormonal response to social threat: Commentary on Taylor et al. (2000). Psychological Review, 109, 745–750.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.4.745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC., American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  42. Geary, D. C. (2016). Evolution of sex differences in trait- and age-specific vulnerabilities. Perspectives on Psychological Science 855–876.Google Scholar
  43. Granger, D. A., Serbin, L. A., Scwartzman, A. E., Luhoux, P., Cooperman, J., & Ikeda, S. (1998). Children’s salivary cortisol, internalizing behavior problems, and family environment: Results from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22, 707–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gunnar, M. R., & Donzella, B. (2002). Social regulation of cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27(1–2), 199–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00045-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Emotional contagion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 96–99.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hibel, L. C., Granger, D. A., Blair, C., & Finegood, E. D. (2015). Maternal-child adrenocortical attunement in early childhood: Continuity and change. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 83–95.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hill, K., & Kaplan, H. (1999). Life history traits in humans: Theory and empirical studies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 397–430.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.28.1.397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hofer, M. A. (1987). Early social relationships: A psychobiologist’s view. Child Development, 58, 633–647.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1130203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofer, M. A. (1994). Early relationships as regulators of infant physiology and behavior. Acta Paediatrica, 83, 9–18.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13260.x
  50. Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: A history of mothers, infants, natural selection. New York, NY: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  51. Hrdy, S. B. (2009). The woman that never evolved. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Huether, G. (1998). Stress and the adaptive self-organization of neuronal connectivity during early childhood. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 16(3–4), 297–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0736-5748(98)00023-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Iacoboni, M., Woods, R. P., Brass, M., Bekkering, H., Mazziotta, J. C., & Rizzolatti, G. (1999). Cortical mechanisms of human imitation. Science, 286(5449), 2526–2528.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5449.2526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan, H. B., Burch, N. R., & Bloom, S. W. (1964). Physiological covariation and sociometric relationships in small peer groups. In P. H. Leiderman & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Psychobiological approaches to social behavior (pp. 92–109). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Keller, H., Lohaus, A., Volker, S., Elben, C., & Ball, J. (2003). Warmth and contingency and their relationship to maternal attitudes toward parenting. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 3:275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Levine, R. A. (2002). Contexts and culture in psychological research. New Directions for Child Development (96), 101–106.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.46
  57. Liu, D., Diorio, J., Tannenbaum, B., Caldji, C., Francis, D., Freedman, A., Sharma, S., Pearson, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1997). Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Science 277:1659–1662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu, S., Rovine, M. J., Cousino Klein, L., & Almeida, D. M. (2013). Synchrony of diurnal cortisol pattern in couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 579–588.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033735.
  59. Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behavior and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10:434–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McEwen, B. S., & Seeman, T. (1999). Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 30–47.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08103.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McGowan, P. O., Sasaki, A., D’Alessio, A. C., Dymov, S., Lanonte, B., Szyf, M., … Meaney, M. J. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of the glucocortiocoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 342–348.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meaney, M. J. (2001). Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 1161–1192.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mills-Koonce, W. R., Garrett-Peters, P., Barnett, M., Granger, D. A., Blair, C., Cox, M. J., & the Family Life Project Key Investigators. (2011). Father contributions to cortisol responses in infancy and toddlerhood. Developmental Psychology, 47, 388–395.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moffit, T. E., Caspi, A., & Belsky, J. (1992). Childhood experience and the onset of menarche: A test of a sociobiological model. Child Development, 63, 47–58.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1130900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moore, C. L., & Power, K. L. (1992). Variation in maternal care and individual differences in play, exploration, and grooming of juvenile Norway rat offspring. Developmental Psychobiology, 25, 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Murray, L., Kempton, C., Woolgar, M., & Hooper, R. (1993). Depressed mothers’ speech to their infants and its relation to infant gender and cognitive development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1083–1101.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb01775.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Munk, A., Guyre, P.M., & Holbrook, N. J. (1984). Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Endocrine Reviews, 5, 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Out, D., Pieper, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., Zeskind, P.S., & van IJzendoorn, M.H. (2010). Intended sensitive and harsh caregiving responses to infant crying: the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in an adult twin sample. Child Abuse & Neglect 34:863–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Out, D. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., Van Pelt, J., & Can IJzendoorn, M.H. (2012). Salivary alpa-amylase and intended harsh caregiving in response to infant crying: Evidence for physiological hyperreactivity. Child Maltreatment 17:295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Papp, L. M., Pendry, P., Simon, C. D., & Adam, E. K. (2013). Spouses’ cortisol associations and moderators: Testing physiological synchrony and connectedness in everyday life. Family Process, 52, 284–298.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2012.01413.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pruessner, J.C., Dedovic, K., Pruessner, M., Lord, C., Buss, C., Collins, L., Dagher, A., & Lupien, S.J. (2010). Stress regulation in the central nervous system: evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies in human populations – 2008 Curt Richter Award Winner. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Quinlan, R. J. (2003) Father absence, parental care, and female reproductive development. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24(6), 376–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raver, C. C. (1996) Relations between social contingency in mother-child interaction and 2-year-olds’ social competence. Developmental Psychology 32(5):850–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reid, V. M., Dunn, K., Young, R. J., Amu, J., Donovan, T., & Reissland, N. (2017). The human fetus preferentially engages with face-like visual stimuli. Current Biology, 27, 1825–1828.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruttle, P. L., Serbin, L. A., Stack, D. M., Schwartzman, A. E., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). Adrenocortical attunement in mother-child dyads: Importance of situational and behavioral characteristics. Biological Psychology, 88, 104–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.06.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munk, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89.  https://doi.org/10.1210/er.21.1.55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Saxbe, D. E., Margolin, G., Shapiro, L. S., Ramos, M., Rodriguez, A., & Iturralde, E. (2014). Relative influences: Patterns of HPA axis concordance during triadic family interaction. Health Psychology, 33, 273–281.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sheppard, P., Snopkowski, K., & Sear, R. (2014). Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia: A transitional fertility population. Human Nature, 25, 213–234.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-014-9195-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stearns, S. C. (1977). The evolution of life history traits: A critique of the theory and a review of the data. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 8, 145–171.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.08.110177.001045.
  80. Stearns, S. C. (1992). The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Storey, A. E., Walsh, C. J., Quinton, R. L., & Wynne-Edwards, K. E. (2000). Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 79–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00042-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Surbey, M. (1990). Family composition, stress, and human menarche. In F. Bercovitch & T. Zeigler (Eds.), The socioendocrinology of primate reproduction (pp. 71–97). New York, NY: Liss.Google Scholar
  83. Suveg, C., Shaffer, A., & Davis, M. (2015). Family stress moderates relations between physiological and behavioral synchrony and child self-regulation in mother-preschooler dyads. Developmental Psychobiology, 58, 83–97.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Szyf, M., Weaver, I. C. G., Champagne, F. A., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M. J. (2005). Maternal programming of steroid receptor expression and phenotype through DNA methylation in the rat. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 26, 139–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2005.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shirtcliff, E.A., Vitacco, M.J., Graf, A.R., Gostisha, A.J. Merz, J.L., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2009). Neurobiology of empathy and callousness: Implications for the development of antisocial behavior. Behavioral Sciences & the Law 27:173–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Taylor, S. E., & Gonzaga, G. C. (2006). Evolution, relationships, and health: The social shaping hypothesis. In M. Schaller, J. Simpson, & F. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolution and Social Psychology (pp. 211–236). Ann Arbor, MI: Sheridan.Google Scholar
  87. Tester-Jones, M., O’Mahen, H., Watkins, E., & Karl, A. (2015). The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 40, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.02.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Uchino, B. N., Uno, D., & Holt-Lunstad, J. (1999). Social support, physiological processes, and health. Current Directions in Psychological Sciences, 8, 145–148.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vigil, J. M., Geary, D. C., & Byrd-Craven, J. (2006). Trade-offs in low-income women’s mate preferences: Within-sex differences in reproductive strategy. Human Nature, 17, 319–336.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-006-1012-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Waters, S. F., West, T. V., & Mendes, W. B. (2014). Stress contagion: Physiological covariation between mothers and infants. Psychological Science, 25, 934–942.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613518352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weinberg, M. K., Beeghly, M., Olson, K. L., & Tronick, E. (2008). Effects of maternal depression and panic disorder on mother-infant interactive behavior in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Infant Mental Health Journal, 29, 472–491.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Weinberg, M. K., Tronick, E. Z., Cohn, J. F., & Olson, K. L. (1999). Gender differences in emotional expressivity and self-regulation during early infancy. Developmental Psychology, 35, 175.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.35.1.175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wynne-Edwards, K. E., & Reburn, C. J. (2000). Behavioral endocrinology of mammalian fatherhood. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 15(11), 464–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)01972-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

Personalised recommendations