Advertisement

The Effects of Virtual Reality on Destination Image Formation

  • Ashelle McFee
  • Tanja Mayrhofer
  • Andrea Baràtovà
  • Barbara Neuhofer
  • Mattia Rainoldi
  • Roman Egger
Conference paper

Abstract

The mental image potential visitors have of a destination is a critical factor when making travel decisions. Research has shown that destination image formation correlates with users’ involvement with a device or platform, such as virtual reality (VR). While the impact of VR on the formation of a destination image has only received limited attention, literature suggests that the use of VR could have a positive influence on destination image. This study set out to examine the impact of VR on the formation of a destination image in comparison to an identical video viewed on a computer. An experiment with a post-user survey was conducted. The analysis confirms that the higher levels of involvement through using VR goggles do have a positive correlation with destination image formation. For destination marketing, this study suggests VR as a tool to positively influence the image of a destination.

Keywords

Virtual reality Destination image formation 360-degree video Virtual destination image 

References

  1. 1.
    Gutierrez M, Vexo F, Thalmann D (2008) Stepping into virtual reality. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cheong R (1995) The virtual threat to travel and tourism. Tour Manag 16(6):417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guttentag DA (2010) Virtual reality: applications and implications for tourism. Tour Manag 31:637–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buhalis D, Law R (2008) Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—The state of eTourism research. Tour Manag 29(4):609–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Molinillo S, Liébana-Cabanillas F, Anaya-Sánchez R, Buhalis D (2018) DMO online platforms: image and intention to visit. Tour Manag 65:116–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Neuhofer B, Buhalis D, Ladkin A (2012) Conceptualising technology enhanced destination experiences. J Destin Mark Manag 1(1–2):36–46Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hyun MY, O’Keefe RM (2012) Virtual destination image: testing a telepresence model. J Bus Res 65(1):29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kisali H, Kavaratzis M, Saren M (2016) Rethinking destination image formation. Int J Cult Tour Hosp Res 10(1):70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gartner WC (1994) Image formation process. J Travel Tour Mark 2(2–3):191–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hobson JSP, Williams P (1997) Virtual reality: the future of leisure and tourism? World Leis Recreat 39(3):34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beerli A, Martin JD (2004) Factors influencing destination image. Ann Tour Res 31(3):657–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baloglu S, McCleary KW (1999) A model of destination image formation. Ann Tour Res 26(4):868–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacKay KJ, Fesenmaier DR (1997) Pictorial element of destination in image formation. Ann Tour Res 24(3):537–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Michaelidou N, Siamagka NT, Moraes C, Micevski M (2013) Do marketers use visual representations of destinations that tourists value? Comparing visitors’ image of a destination with marketer-controlled images online. J Travel Res 52(6):789–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith WW, Li X, Pan B, Witte M, Doherty ST (2015) Tracking destination image across the trip experience with smartphone technology. Tour Manag 48:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frías DM, Rodríguez MA, Castañeda JA (2008) Internet vs. travel agencies on pre-visit destination image formation: an information processing view. Tour Manag 29(1):163–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim H, Richardson SL (2003) Motion picture impacts on destination images. Ann Tour Res 30(1):216–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lai K, Li X (2015) Tourism destination image: conceptual problems and definitional solutions. J Travel Res 55(8):1065–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shani A, Chen P-J, Wang Y, Hua N (2010) Testing the impact of a promotional video on destination image change: application of China as a tourism destination. Int J Tour Res 12:116–133Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buhalis D (2000) Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tour Manag 21:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hosany S, Ekinci Y, Uysal M (2006) Destination image and destination personality: an application of branding theories to tourism places. J Bus Res 59:638–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pan S (2011) The role or TV commercial visuals in forming memorable and impressive destination images. J Travel Res 50(2):171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jeong C, Holland S, Jun SH, Gibson H (2012) Enhancing destination image through travel website information. Int J Tour Res 14(1):16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burdea GC, Coiffet P (2003) Virtual reality technology, 2nd edn. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vince J (2004) Introduction to virtual reality. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodríguez-Molina MA, Frías-Jamilena DM, Castañeda-García JA (2015) The contribution of website design to the generation of tourist destination image: the moderating effect of involvement. Tour Manag 47:303–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Havitz ME, Dimanche F (1990) Propositions for testing the involvement construct in recreational and tourism contexts. Leis Sci 12(2):179–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Punj G, Moore R (2009) Information search and consideration set formation in a web-based store environment. J Bus Res 64:644–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Draft RL, Lengel RH (1986) Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design. Manag Sci 32(5):554–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williams P, Hobson JP (1995) Virtual reality and tourism: fact or fantasy? Tour Manag 16(6):423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gibson A, O’Rawe M (2018) Virtual reality as a travel promotional tool: insights from a consumer travel fair. In: Jung T, tom Dieck M (eds) Augmented reality and virtual reality. Progress in IS. Springer, Cham, pp 93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sanchez-Vives MV, Slater M (2005) From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nat Rev Neurosci 6(4):332–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Slater M, Lotto RB, Arnold MM, Sanchez-Vives MV (2009) How we experience immersive virtual environments: the concept of presence and its measurement. Anuario de Psicología 40(2):193–210Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cho YH, Wang Y, Fesenmaier DR (2002) Searching for experiences: the web-based virtual tour in tourism marketing. J Travel Tour Mark 12(4):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Staats H, Gatersleben B, Hartig T (1997) Change in mood as a function of environmental design: arousal and pleasure on a simulated forest hike. J Environ Psychol 17:283–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nodes S (2012) What is the best for travel websites-videos or virtual tours? https://www.tnooz.com/article/what-is-the-best-for-travel-websites-videosorvirtual-tours/. Accessed 28 Jan 2018
  37. 37.
    O’Neill S (2016) Live, 360, or virtual video: facebook`s new video formats catch marketers’ eyes. https://www.tnooz.com/article/live-360-or-virtual-video-facebooks-new-video-formats-may-appeal-to-marketers/. Accessed 28 Jan 2018
  38. 38.
    Nodes S (2017) Engaging travel audiences through 360-degree video. https://www.tnooz.com/article/360-degree-travel-video/. Accessed 28 Jan 2018
  39. 39.
    Vogt CA, Fesenmaier DR (1998) Expanding the functional information search model. Ann Tour Res 25(3):551–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Steuer J (1992) Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. J Commun 42(4):73–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suh KS, Chang S (2006) User interfaces and consumer perceptions of online stores: the role of telepresence. Behav Inf Technol 25(2):99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beck J, Rainoldi M, Egger R (In Press) Virtual reality in tourism: a state of the art review. Tour RevGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Diemer J, Alpers GW, Peperkorn HM, Shiban Y, Mühlberger A (2015) The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality. Front Psychol 6:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marchiori E, Niforatos E, Preto L (2017) Measuring the media effects of a tourism-related virtual reality experience using biophysical data. In: Schegg R, Stangl B (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2017. Springer, Cham, pp 203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Driescher V, Lisnevska A, Zvereva D, Stavinska A, Relota J (2016) Virtual Reality: an innovative sneak preview for destinations. In: Egger R, Maurer C (eds) Tourism research perspectives, proceedings of the international student conference in tourism research 2017, pp 65–76Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bryman A (2012) Social research methods. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bradley MM, Lang PJ, Cuthbert BN (1993) Emotion, novelty, and the startle reflex: habituation in humans. Behav Neurosci 107(6):970–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rooney B, Benson C, Hennessy E (2012) The apparent reality of movies and emotional arousal: a study using physiological and self-report measures. Poetics 40(5):405–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cortina JM (1993) What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. J Appl Psychol 78(1):98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashelle McFee
    • 1
  • Tanja Mayrhofer
    • 1
  • Andrea Baràtovà
    • 1
  • Barbara Neuhofer
    • 1
  • Mattia Rainoldi
    • 1
  • Roman Egger
    • 1
  1. 1.Salzburg University of Applied SciencesPuch bei HalleinAustria

Personalised recommendations