Advertisement

Biolaw, Liberalism and Cognitive Enhancement: Identifying Harms

  • Daniel LoeweEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine book series (LIME, volume 78)

Abstract

In this chapter, some of the articulated criticisms against cognitive enhancement through the use of pharmacological agents as well as some ways of counteracting them will be examined. In the argumentation, the institutional apparatus of a liberal democracy of capitalist production will be supossed. While each of these factors (liberalism, democracy, and capitalism) admits different interpretations, the argument is not played in their specification. One important conclusion will be that uncertainty about the consequences of cognitive enhancement in health should also be considered in the equation. If there is no damage in its use, there is no reason to restrict access. But if it causes harm, or is likely to produce it, this consideration may change. As a general rule: the more dangerous the enhancement, or the more uncertain the health consequences, the better it is to control and restrict access. However, if it has no serious consequences on health, there would be no reason, from a liberal perspective, to restrict its use.

References

  1. Agar, N. (2010). Humanity’s end. Whay we should reject radical enhancement. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kronman, A. T., & Posner, R. A. (1979). The economics of contract law. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  3. Appel, J. (2008). When the Boss Turns Pusher: A proposal for employee protections in the age of cosmetic neurology. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34, 616–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appiah, K. A. (2005). The ethics of identity. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barry, B. (2005). Why social justice matters. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bostrom, N. (2003). Human genetic enhancement: A transhumanistic perspective. Journal of Value Inquiry, 37(4), 493–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bostrom, N., & Sandberg, A. (2009). Cognitive enhancement: methods, ethics, regulatory challenges. Science and Engineering Ethics, 15, 311–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buchanan, A. (1995). Equal opportunity and genetic intervention. Social Philosophy and Policy Foundation, 1, 105–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buchanan, A., Brock, D., Daniels, N., & Wikler, D. (2000). From chance to choice. Genetic and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatterjee, A. (2004). Cosmetic neurology—the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation, and mood. Neurology, 63(6), 968–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Jongh, R., Bolt, I., Schermer, M., & Olivier, B. (2008). Botox for the brain: Enhancement of cognition, mood and pre-social behavior and blunting of unwanted memories. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 760–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeGrazia, D. (2005a). Enhancement technologies and human identity. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 30(3), 261–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeGrazia, D. (2005b). Human identity and bioethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubljević, V. (2012). Toward a legitimate public policy on cognitive enhancement drugs. AJOB Neuroscience, 3(3), 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubljević, V. (2013). Prohibition or coffee shops: Regulation of amphetamine and methylphenidate for enhancement use by healthy adults. The American Journal of Bioethics, 13(7), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Engels, F. (1962). Dialektik der Natur. Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen. Berlin: Dietz Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. Frankfurt, H. (1988). The importance about what we care about. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gesang, B. (2007). Perfektionierung des Menschen. New York, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glannon, W. (2008). Psychopharmacological enhancement. Neuroethics, 1, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Glover, J. (2006). Choosing children. The ethical dilemmas of genetic intervention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gottfredson, L. (1997). Why G matters: The complexity of everyday life. Intelligence, 24(1), 79–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gottfredson, L. (2004). Life, death, and intelligence. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 4(1), 23–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Habermas, J. (2001). Die Zukunft der menschlichen Natur. Auf dem Weg zu einer liberalen Eugenik?. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  24. Harris, J. (2007). Enhancing evolution. The ethical case for making better people. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hughes, J. (2004). Citizen Cyborg: Why democratic societies must respond to the redesigned human of the future. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  26. Husain, M., & Mehta, M. A. (2011). Cognitive enhancement by drugs in health and disease. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jotterand, F., & Dubljevic, V. (Eds.). (2016). Cognitive enhancement. Ethical and policy implications in international perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Juengst, E (1988): What does enhancement means? In: E.Parens (ed.): Enhancing human traits. Ethical and social implications. Washington, Georgetown University Press, 29–46.Google Scholar
  29. Kraybill, D. (1989). The riddle of Amish culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kraybill, D. (Ed.). (1993). The Amish and the state. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Loewe, D. (2010a). The case against perfection. Ethics in the age of genetic engineering de Michael J. Sandel. Signos Filosóficos, 12(23), 207–212.Google Scholar
  32. Loewe, D. (2010b). Obligaciones hacia generaciones futuras: el caso Contractual. Veritas, 55(1), 21–66.Google Scholar
  33. Loewe (2011a). Der Umfang der moralischen Gemeinschaft. In L. Kovács & C. Brand (Eds.), Forschungspraxis Bioethik (pp. 155–158). Freiburg/München: Alber Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Loewe (2011b): La felicidad y el bienestar subjetivo. In: Carmen Trueba Atienza (ed.): La felicidad: Perspectivas antiguas, modernas y contemporáneas. México, Siglo XXI, 362–388.Google Scholar
  35. Loewe, D. (2014). Justicia y memoria: obligaciones de justicia anamnética. In A. Stefane & G. Bustamante (Eds.), La Agonía de la convivencia (pp. 87–99). Santiago: Ril editores.Google Scholar
  36. Loewe, D. (2015a). Justicia contractual y los seres del futuro. In M. Figueroa (Ed.), Liberalismo político. Problemas y desarrollos contemporáneos (pp. 205–245). Santiago: Ril editores.Google Scholar
  37. Loewe, D. (2015b). Liberalismo político, educación y particularismo religioso: Wisconsin v. Yoder y el valor de la educación. Revista de Estudios Políticos, 170, 121–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Loewe (2016). Cognitive Enhancement and the leveling of the playing field: The case of Latin America. In F. Jotterand & V. Dubljevic (Eds.), Cogmitive enhancement: Ethical and Policy implications in international perspectives (pp. 219–236). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maslen, H., Faulmüller, N., & Savulescu, J. (2014). Pharmacological cognitive enhancement—how neuroscientific research coul advance ethical debate. Fontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8, 107.Google Scholar
  40. Merkel, R., Boer, G., Fegert, J., Galert, T., Hartmann, D., Nuttin, B., et al. (2007). Intervening in the brain. Changing psyche and society. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Mill, J. S. (2000). On liberty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, state and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  43. Parfit, D. (1987). Reasons and persons. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  44. Quante, M. (2002). Personales Leben und menschlicher Tod. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  45. Randall, D., Shneerson, J., & File, S. (2005). Cognitive effects of modafinil in students volunteers may depend on IQ. Pharmachology Biochemistry and Behavior, 82(1), 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rawls, J. (2001). Justice as fairness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Raz, J. (1988). The morality of freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Repantis, D., Schlattmann, P., Laisney, O., & Heuser, I. (2010). Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroanhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review. Pharmacological Research, 62, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Salkever, D. (1995). Updated estimates of earning benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead. Environmental Research, 70(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sandel, M. (2007). The case against perfection. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Schermer, M. (2006). On the argument that enhancement is “Cheating”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34, 85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schöne-Seifert, B., & Talbot, D. (Eds.). (2009). Enhancement. Die ethische debatte. Paderborn: Mentis.Google Scholar
  54. Shapiro, M. (2002). Does technological enhancement of human traits threaten human equality and democracy? San Diego Law Review, 39, 769–842.Google Scholar
  55. Solomon, L., Noll, R., & Mordkoff, D. (2009). Cognitive enhancement in human beings. Gender Medicine, 6(2), 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2009). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  57. Trnka, J. (2009): The ethics of cognitive enhancement: Is it wrong to take ‘smart drugs’? http://www.academia.edu/2914861/The_Ethics_of_Cognitive_Enhancement. Accessed February 2, 2018.
  58. Whalley, L., & Deary, I. (2001). Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ and survival up to age 76. British Medical Journal, 322, 819–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adolfo Ibáñez UniversitySantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations