Advertisement

Combining Public Health Approaches with Increased Focus on Risk and Safety: A Norwegian Experience

  • Bente Heggem KojanEmail author
  • Edgar Marthinsen
  • Graham Clifford
Chapter
Part of the Child Maltreatment book series (MALT, volume 9)

Abstract

This chapter discusses child welfare and child protection policies in relation to public health in Norway, and especially the move towards risk-assessment models in thinking, reporting and assessing based on an individual focus on families and children. The aims and policies may reach towards a public health model, but seems related to other policies and ideas than earlier. We discuss how there is a shift from social planning for a welfare state concerned with well-being for all, towards a state concerned with risk and moral order. What started as an increase interpreted as child abuse and neglect seems to have continued into a social space of concern for children’s lives in general, and especially those who may be regarded as in need or at risk. Our empirical data suggest those with multiple challenges for services receive least help. Systems are controlled and monitored by goal attainment measures, deadlines and performance indicators, rather than focussing on people’s needs. Part of the difficulty we encounter in seeing child welfare in a health or public health perspective seems to be that there is scarce room for long-term investment in marginalized and/or families in need. Public health ideals about promoting enhanced living conditions as well as good health and happiness, has not been realized as a practice within the Norwegian child welfare and protection system, despite its long tradition of a social democratic system orientation.

Keywords

Child protection Families in need Public health Risk assessment Social work 

References

  1. Andenæs, A. (2004). Hvorfor ser vi ikke fattigdommen? Fra en undersøkelse av barn som blir plassert utenfor hjemmet. Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 24(1), 19–33.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, M. J., & Johannessen, A. (2015). Introduction. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 12(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  3. Backe-Hansen, E., Madsen, C., Kristofersen, L. B., & Hvinden, B. (Red.) (2014). Barnevern i Norge, 1990–2010. En longitudinell studie. NOVA Rapport 9/2014.Google Scholar
  4. Berg, B., Paulsen, V., Midjo, T., Haugen, G. M., Garvik, M., & Tøssebro, J. (2017). Myter og realiteter – innvandreres møte med barnevernet. Rapport. NTNU Samfunnsforskning.Google Scholar
  5. Brante, T. (2014). Den professionella logiken. Hur vetenskap och praktik förenas i det moderna kunskapssamhället. Stockholm: Liber.Google Scholar
  6. Bufdir. (2017). Oppvektsrapporten 2017. Økte forskjeller – gjør det noe? Oslo: Bufdir.Google Scholar
  7. Christiansen, Ø. & Hollekim, R. (2018). In-home services: A rights-based professional practice meets Children’s and families’ needs. 10, sider 185–208. In A. Falch-Eriksen, A. & E. Backe-Hansen, Human Rights in Child Protection Implications for Professional Practice and Policy. UK, Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Clausen, S-E., & Kristofersen, L. B. (2008). Barnevernsklienter i Norge 1990–2005. En longitudinell studie. NOVA Rapport nr. 03, Oslo.Google Scholar
  9. Clifford, G., Fauske, H., Lichtwarck, W., & Marthinsen, E. (2015). Minst hjelp til dem som trenger det mest? Sluttrapport fra forsknings- og utviklingsprosjektet «Det nye barnevernet». NF-rapport nr. 6/2015.Google Scholar
  10. Cottam, H. (2018). Radical help. How we can remake the relationships between us and revolutionize the welfare state. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  11. Davidson, B., Bredmar, M., Hellberg, K., Lichtwarck, W. & Petersson, G. (2017). Förändrade arbetsmetoder i det sociala arbetet med familjer med sammansatta behov. En utvärdering av projektet Familjelotsen – utveckling i samverkan i Linköpings kommun. Linköping, FoU-centrum.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, L., & Duckett, N. (2008). Proactive child protection and social work. Exeter: Learning Matters.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, W. (2015). The happiness industry: How the government and big business sold us well-being. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  14. Egelund, T. (1997). Beskyttelse af barndommen. Socialforvaltningers risikovurdering og indgreb. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels forlag.Google Scholar
  15. Ericsson, K. (1996). Barnevern som samfunnsspeil. Oslo: Pax Forlag.Google Scholar
  16. Ericsson, K. (2000). Social control and emancipation – Ambiguities in child welfare. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 1(1), 16–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14043850050116237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fauske, H., Kojan, B. H., & Storhaug, A. S. (2018). Social class and child welfare: Intertwining issues of redistribution and recognition. Social Science, 7(9), 143.  https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Featherstone, B., White, S., & Morris, K. (2014). Reimagining child protection: Towards humane social work with families. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferguson, I. (2008). Reclaiming social work. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Garrett, P. M. (2009). ‘Transforming’ children’s services? Social work, neoliberalism and the ‘modern’ world. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill/Open University.Google Scholar
  22. Gilbert, N., Parton, N., & Skivenes, M. (Eds.). (2011). Child protection systems: International trends and orientations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Haug, V. (2018). Haug, Veronica. Barn i risiko og risikable foreldre. En analyse av risikoforståelser i barnevernets institusjonelle praksis. PhD-thesis. Oslomet, Norway.Google Scholar
  24. Kamali, M., & Joensson, J. H. (2018). Neoliberalism, Nordic welfare states and social work current and future challenges. UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lichtwarck, W., & Clifford, G. (2010). Modernisering i barnevernet. Ideologi, kontekst og kompetanse. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  26. Lonne, B., Parton, N., Thomson, J., & Harries, M. (2009). Reforming child protection. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  27. Lorentz, W. (2006). Perspectives on European social work. From the birth of the nation state tothe impact of globalization. Opladen/Farmington Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. McDonald, C. (2006). Challenging social work: The context of practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marthinsen, E. (1991). Fra ide til reform: reformer som reetablering av makt og tilpasning til ideologiske føringer. Sosialt arbeids rapportserie; 3. Universitetet i Trondheim: Institutt for sosialt arbeid, NTNU.Google Scholar
  30. Marthinsen, E. (2003). Sosialt arbeid og symbolsk kapital i et senmoderne barnevern. PhD-thesis. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  31. Marthinsen, E. (2004). En radikal analyse av barnevernet. Norges Barnevern, 2, 3–12.Google Scholar
  32. Munro, Eileen (2011). The Munro review of child protection: Final report – A child-centred system. London: TSO (The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  33. NOU. (2012). Bedre beskyttelse av barns utvikling. Oslo: BLD.Google Scholar
  34. Parton, N., Thorpe, D. H., & Wattam, C. (1997). Child protection: Risk and the moral order. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Parton, N. (2014). The politics of child protection – Contemporary developments and future directions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Paulsen, V., Thorshaug, K., & Berg, B. (2014). Møter mellom innvandrere og barnevernet: Kunnskapsstatus. Trondheim: NTNU Samfunnsforskning.Google Scholar
  37. Rogowski, S. (2010). Social work, the rise and fall of a profession. New York: Polity Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Satka, M. (1996). Making social citizenship. Conceptual practices from the Finnish poor law to professional social work. University of Jyväskylä: SoPhi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sunstein, C. R., & Thaler, H. T. (2009). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. New Haven: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  40. Stang Dahl, T. (1992). Barnevern og samfunnsvern: om stat, vitenskap og profesjoner under barnevernets oppkomst i Norge. Oslo: Pax Forlag.Google Scholar
  41. Statistics Norway. (2016). Delen innvandrarbarn undersøkte av barnevernet aukar med alderen. Retrieved from https://www.ssb.no/sosiale-forhold-og-kriminalitet/artikler-og-publikasjoner/delen-innvandrarbarn-undersokte-av-barnevernet-aukar-med-alderen
  42. Statistics Norway. (2018). Child welfare. Retrieved from https://www.ssb.no/en/sosiale-forhold-og-kriminalitet/statistikker/barneverng/aar
  43. Storhaug, A. S., Kojan, B. H., & Kvaran, I. (2012). Enslige mødre i kontakt med barnevernet. Fontene forskning, 5(2), 4–17.Google Scholar
  44. Thrana, H. M. (2016). Love: Recognising relationship in work with vulnerable youth. Joint Special Issue, Love in professional practice. Scottish Journal of Residential Child Care, 15(3) and International Journal of Social Pedagogy, 5(1), 7189.  https://doi.org/10.14324/111.444.ijsp.2017.06.
  45. White, S., & Wastell, D. (2015). The rise and rise of prevention science in UK family welfare: surveillance gets under the skin. Families, Relationships and Societies, 6(3), 427–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bente Heggem Kojan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Edgar Marthinsen
    • 1
  • Graham Clifford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social WorkNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations