Bacterial Cellulose Nanocomposites

  • N. Pa’e
  • I. I. MuhamadEmail author
  • Z. Hashim
  • A. H. M. Yusof


Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer with high purity of cellulose and excellent mechanical properties. Increased interest in the use of natural polymer makes BC as an excellent alternative for plant cellulose. Although both celluloses consist of unbranched pellicle with chemically equivalent structure, bacterial cellulose exhibits greater properties and potential in wider applications. The structure of bacterial cellulose that consists only glucose monomer and nanosized cellulose fibres secreted by the bacteria induces it to have high water-holding capacity, high crystallinity, high degree of polymerization and high mechanical strength. Furthermore, the characterization of BC can be certainly altered by incorporation with materials that are not essential for the bacterial growth into the fermentation medium. This unique property of BC opens a new gate for the development of new cellulose nanocomposites with desired properties by the incorporation of selective suitable materials. The BC nanocomposites produced opens new opportunity for various usages of BC in different fields of application in the pharmaceutical, chemical, medical and wastewater treatment plants.


Bacterial cellulose Bacterial cellulose composites Nanocomposites Biopolymer composites 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Pa’e
    • 1
  • I. I. Muhamad
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Z. Hashim
    • 1
  • A. H. M. Yusof
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Cardiac Biomaterials Cluster, IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Center, FBME, UTMJohor BahruMalaysia

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