Graphics of Adverse Effects

  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


In the current chapter we will assess studies, where adverse effects are not measured through numbers of events reported, but, rather, at a more sophisticated level, with continuous data, like a battery of laboratory tests. The Konstanz information miner (Knime) was used for the graphical purpose. Include were:
  • box and whiskers plots,

  • lift charts,

  • histograms,

  • line plots,

  • matrices of scatter plots,

  • parallel coordinates,

  • hierarchical clusters.

Clinical computer files are complex, and hard to statistically test. Instead, visualization processes can be successfully used as an alternative approach to traditional statistical data analysis.


Konstanz information miner Graphics of adverse effects Box and whiskers plots Lift charts Histograms Line plots Matrices of scatter plots Parallel coordinates Hierarchical clusters 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Albert Schweitzer HospitalDepartment MedicineSliedrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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