Forest Plots of Adverse Effects

  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


For the analysis of efficacy data in clinical drug trials, generally, continuous data are applied. For the analysis of safety data, in contrast, usually proportions of patients with adverse effects are assessed.

The prevalences of adverse effects can be estimated with odds values of patients with adverse effects. The chance of adverse effects of a treatment versus that of a control can be approximated from the ratios of their odds values.


Forest plots Qualitative adverse effects Odds ratios Odds values 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Albert Schweitzer HospitalDepartment MedicineSliedrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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