Subgroup Characteristics Assessed as Dependent Adverse Effects

  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


In this chapter examples are given where a subgroup characteristic like the effect of being married is a dependent adverse effect of the effect of, for example, life style on the outcome quality of life (QOL, qol).

Multinomial regression is traditional for identifying the main predictors of outcome categories, like levels of injury or quality of life (QOL, qol) categories. A better sensitive approach is various loglinear modelings. In the example given, logit loglinear, hierarchical loglinear of the orders 1st – 4th successively give increasing numbers of significant predictor interactions that can all be interpreted as dependent adverse effects.


Subgroup characteristic Dependent adverse effect Multinomial model Logit loglinear model Hierarchical loglinear models 1st to 4th order 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Albert Schweitzer HospitalDepartment MedicineSliedrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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