Advertisement

Challenges to Turkey’s Transition to a Low-Carbon Urban Development: A Roadmap for an Effective Climate Change Policy

  • Osman BalabanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

Turkey is an emerging economy with a growing gross domestic product, which brings with it a rapid increase in energy consumption. Turkey’s per capita GHG emissions increased from 3.88 tons of CO2eq in 1990 to 6.07 tons of CO2eq in 2015. Furthermore, due to being located in the Mediterranean Basin, Turkey is highly vulnerable to such impacts of climate change as temperature rises, flooding and water shortage. Since the early 2000s, there have been several efforts in developing a climate policy in Turkey. The EU accession negotiations have played a catalyst role in pushing the environmental agenda and climate policy forward. However, the current state of climate policy in Turkey is far from being a sound policy framework. Despite the introduction of several policy documents and institutional reforms, GHGs and climatic vulnerabilities of Turkish cities are increasing. This chapter investigates the current state of climate policy in Turkey so as to underline its shortcoming and weaknesses. Following the discussion on the existing situation, a roadmap is proposed to sidestep the existing shortcomings and develop a sound and internationally valid climate policy. The proposed roadmap is believed to facilitate the transition to a low-carbon urban development in Turkish cities.

Keywords

Climate change Climate governance Environmental policy Low carbon Resilience 

References

  1. Bai X, Dawson RJ, Ürge-Vorsatz D, Delgado GC, Barau AS, Dhakal S, Dodman D, Leonardsen L, Masson-Delmotte V, Roberts DC, Schultz S (2018) Six research priorities for cities and climate change. Nat Comment 555(7694):23–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balaban O (2017) A matter of capacity: climate change and the urban challenges for Turkey. New Perspect Turk 56:159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balaban O, Şenol-Balaban M (2015) Adaptation to climate change: barriers in the Turkish local context. TeMA: J Land Use, Mobility Environ 8(ECCA 2015):7–22Google Scholar
  4. Bättig MB, Bernauer T (2009) National institutions and global public goods: are democracies more cooperative in climate change policy? Int Organ 63 63(Spring 2009):281–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blicharska M, Smithers RJ, Kuchler M, Agrawal GK, Gutiérrez JM, Hassanali A, Huq S, Koller SH, Marjit S, Mshinda HM, Masjuki HJH, Solomons NW, Van Staden J, Mikusiński G (2017) Steps to overcome the north-south divide in research relevant to climate change policy and practice. Nat Clim Change 7(January):21–27.  https://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE3163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bulkeley H (2015) Can cities realise their climate potential? Reflections on COP 21 Paris and beyond. Local Environ 20(11):1405–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cerit-Mazlum S (2017) Turkey and post-Paris climate change politics: still playing alone. New Perspect Turk 56:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gedikli B (2018) Approaches to climate change in spatial planning and design: international and Turkish experiences. METU J Fac Archit 35(1):89–109.  https://doi.org/10.4305/METU.JFA.2018.1.9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gedikli B, Balaban O (2018) An evaluation of local policies and actions that address climate change in Turkish metropolitan cities. Eur Plan Stud 26(3):458–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Google Earth. Istanbul (2018) 41o06′32.85′′N, 29o06′31.82′′E, 13.12.2017. Accessed 2 Sep 2018Google Scholar
  11. Hepburn C, Teytelboym A (2017) Climate change policy after Brexit. Oxford Rev Econ Policy 33(S1):144–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. IEA International Energy Agency (2016) Energy policies of IEA countries Turkey 2016 review. OECD/IEA, FranceGoogle Scholar
  13. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. In: Solomon S et al (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, p 996Google Scholar
  14. Kolsuz G, Yeldan E (2017) Economics of climate change and green employment: a general equilibrium investigation for Turkey. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 70:1240–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. MEU Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (2010) National climate change strategy document 2010–2020. Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  16. MEU Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (2013) Turkey’s fifth national communication under the UNFCCC. Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  17. Pasgaard M, Strange N (2013) A quantitative analysis of the causes of the global climate change research distribution. Glob Environ Change 23:1684–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Republic of Turkey (2015) Intended nationally determined contribution. http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Turkey/1/The_INDC_of_TURKEY_v.15.19.30.pdf. Accessed 08 Aug 2018
  19. Şahin Ü (2016) Warming a frozen policy: challenges to Turkey’s climate politics after Paris. Turk Policy Q 15(2):117–129Google Scholar
  20. Sayman RÜ, Odabaş G (2017) İklim değişikliğiyle mücadelede şehirlerin rolü. Kentli Dergisi 28(Temmuz-Ağustos-Eylül 2017):67–70Google Scholar
  21. Schreurs MA (2003) Environmental politics in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Cambridge University Press, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Steentjes K, Pidgeon N, Poortinga W, Corner A, Arnold A, Böhm G, Mays C, Poumadère M, Ruddat M, Scheer D, Sonnberger M, Tvinnereim E (2017) European perceptions of climate change: topline findings of a survey conducted in four European countries in 2016. Cardiff University, CardiffGoogle Scholar
  23. Turhan E (2017) Right here, right now: a call for engaged scholarship on climate justice in Turkey. New Perspect Turk 56:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Turhan E, Cerit Mazlum S, Şahin Ü, Şorman AH, Gündoğan AC (2016) Beyond special circumstances: climate change policy in Turkey 1992–2015. Wiley Interdisc Rev: Clim Change 7:448–460Google Scholar
  25. Türkeş M (2017) Climate change policy and the cost of inaction: an institutional account from Turkey. New Perspect Turk 56:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. TurkStat Turkish Statistical Institute (2013) National greenhouse gas inventory report 1990–2012: annual report submission under the framework convention on climate change. Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  27. TurkStat Turkish Statistical Institute (2017) Press release: greenhouse gas emissions statistics 1990–2015. No: 24588, 17 Apr 2017Google Scholar
  28. Yeldan E (2017) The economics of climate change action in Turkey: a commentary. New Perspect Turkey 56:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of City and Regional PlanningMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations