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Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Polymeric Materials

  • Paramjit SinghEmail author
  • Rajesh Kumar
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Polymer and Composite Materials book series (SSPCM)

Abstract

The material properties can be modified/tailored by either of the techniques available such as top-down method, bottom-up method, composite ratio variation, doping of a suitable dopant, ion beam-related methods and many others. The modifications by ion beam and radiation treatment are quite effective techniques to calibrate the physical, chemical, surface and structural properties of the materials. Polymeric materials are highly radiation sensitive and their properties can be modified by exposing the material to different ions and radiation such as gamma rays, electron and proton beams as well as swift heavy ions. The focus of the present discussion is pointed towards the radiation (mainly swift heavy ions and gamma rays) induced modification of polymeric materials and their physical and chemical aspects. The fundamental concepts of energy transfer of swift heavy ions and the post-irradiation effects such as cross-linking and chain scissoring of polymeric materials have been discussed in this chapter. The polymeric chain scissoring and cross-linking are related to the structural, chemical, surface, electrical and free volume properties of the polymers. The concept of free volume is further related to gas diffusion and separation properties of some of the polymers. The discussion is limited up to the radiation-sensitive polymers such as polymethyl methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate and polyallyl diglycol carbonate polymers in the present chapter. The applications related to ion beam technology have been discussed in the last section of this chapter.

Keywords

Swift heavy ions Polymers Free volume Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy Cross-linking Chain scissoring 

Abbreviations

CS

Crystallite size

Eg

Band gap energy

FFV

Fractional free volume

FV

Free volume

I3

Intensity of o-Ps

LET

Linear energy transfer

o-Ps

Ortho-positronium

PADC

Polyally diglycol carbonate

PALS

Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PITMs

Polymer ion track membranes

PMMA

Polymethyl methacrylate

p-Ps

Para-positronium

R

Hole radius

RGA

Residual gas analyses

Se

Electronic energy loss

SHI

Swift heavy ions

Sn

Nuclear energy loss

SRIM

Strength and range of ions in matter

SSNTDs

Solid-state nuclear track detectors

TRIM

Transport of ions in matter

XRD

X-ray diffraction

Z

Atomic number

τ3

Lifetime of o-Ps

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gujranwala Guru Nanak Khalsa CollegeLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.University School of Basic and Applied SciencesGuru Gobind Singh Indraprastha UniversityDwarka, New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)TroyUSA

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