Advertisement

Investigation of Interfacial Diffusion During Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding

  • Nikhil Gotawala
  • Amber ShrivastavaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

The objective of this study is to predict the thickness of intermetallic compound at the weld interface of dissimilar friction stir weld of Al 1050 and copper. The mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir weld are significantly affected by the intermetallic compounds formed during the process. The formation of intermetallic depends on the concentrations of the dissimilar materials, which are determined by their diffusion across the weld interface. A numerical model is developed which consists of Fick’s second law based diffusion model in conjunction with a thermo-mechanical model. The numerical model captures the movement of the interfaces between intermetallic species due to the diffusion of the Al. A representative friction stir butt weld is performed with Al 1050 alloy and pure copper. The thickness of the intermetallic layer at the weld interface is determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of the weld cross sections. Predicted intermetallic compound thickness is compared well against the experimental observation.

Keywords

Friction stir welding Dissimilar joining Intermetallic compounds Interfacial diffusion 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the partial support of this work by the Science & Engineering Research Board, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India (File No. ECR/2017/000727/ES), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Microstructural Mechanics and Microforming Lab and Machine Tools Lab at Indian Institute of Technology.

References

  1. 1.
    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng R Rep 50(1–2):1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lan S, Liu X, Ni J (2016) Microstructural evolution during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloy to advanced high-strength steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82(9–12):2183–2193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xue P, Xiao BL, Ni DR, Ma ZY (2010) Enhanced mechanical properties of friction stir welded dissimilar Al–Cu joint by intermetallic compounds. Mater Sci Eng A 527(21):5723–5727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xue P, Ni DR, Wang D, Xiao BL, Ma ZY (2011) Effect of friction stir welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar Al–Cu joints. Mater Sci Eng A 528(13–14):4683–4689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee WB, Schmuecker M, Mercardo UA, Biallas G, Jung SB (2006) Interfacial reaction in steel–aluminum joints made by friction stir welding. Scripta Mater 55(4):355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Girard M, Huneau B, Genevois C, Sauvage X, Racineux G (2010) Friction stir diffusion bonding of dissimilar metals. Sci Technol Weld Join 15(8):661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campo KN, Campanelli LC, Bergmann L, dos Santos JF, Bolfarini C (2014) Microstructure and interface characterization of dissimilar friction stir welded lap joints between Ti–6Al–4V and AISI 304. Mater Des (1980–2015) 56:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bisadi H, Tavakoli A, Sangsaraki MT, Sangsaraki KT (2013) The influences of rotational and welding speeds on microstructures and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al5083 and commercially pure copper sheets lap joints. Mater Des 43:80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Song M, Kovacevic R (2003) Thermal modeling of friction stir welding in a moving coordinate system and its validation. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(6):605–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thermo-mechanical model with adaptive boundary conditions for friction stir welding of Al 6061. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(14):1577–1587Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen CM, Kovacevic R (2003) Finite element modeling of friction stir welding—thermal and thermomechanical analysis. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(13):1319–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang Z, Chen JT, Zhang ZW, Zhang HW (2011) Coupled thermo-mechanical model based comparison of friction stir welding processes of AA2024-T3 in different thicknesses. J. Mater Sci 46(17):5815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Al-Badour F, Merah N, Shuaib A, Bazoune A (2013) Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian finite element modeling of friction stir welding processes. J Mater Process Technol 213(8):1433–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arora A, Nandan R, Reynolds AP, DebRoy T (2009) Torque, power requirement and stir zone geometry in friction stir welding through modeling and experiments. Scripta Mater 60(1):13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rajak A, Kore S (2017) Electromagnetic hemming of aluminum sheets using FEM. ICMMD-2016 Adv Intel Syst Res 77–82Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim HJ, Lee JY, Paik KW, Koh KW, Won J, Choe S, Park YJ (2003) Effects of Cu/AI intermetallic compound (IMC) on copper wire and aluminum pad bondability. IEEE Trans Comp Packag Manuf Technol 26(2):367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kajihara M (2004) Analysis of kinetics of reactive diffusion in a hypothetical binary system. Acta Mater 52(5):1193–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neumann G, Tuijn C (2011) Self-diffusion and impurity diffusion in pure metals: handbook of experimental data, vol 14. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu D, Zhang L, Du Y, Xu H, Liu S, Liu L (2009) Assessment of atomic mobilities of Al and Cu in fcc Al–Cu alloys. Calphad 33(4):761–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hentzell HTG, Tu KN (1983) Interdiffusion in copper–aluminum thin film bilayers. II. Analysis of marker motion during sequential compound formation. J Appl Phys 54(12):6929–6937CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations