Advertisement

Nigeria’s Counter-Terrorism Strategies

  • Olumuyiwa Temitope Faluyi
  • Sultan Khan
  • Adeoye O. Akinola
Chapter
Part of the Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development book series (AAESPD)

Abstract

The Nigerian government has a history of adopting ad-hoc approaches to resolve violent conflict. The country had no policy framework or strategy to respond to armed insurrection. This seems contradictory due to the country’s participation in peacemaking and peacekeeping in other African countries that experienced insurgency. Liberia and Sierra Leone are some of the examples. Nigeria led ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) to enforce peace in the two countries. Aside, Nigeria was also very active in UN peacekeeping missions. Umar (2013) observed that the government’s response to terrorism has been defined by reacting to its symptoms rather than its root causes. The initial government response to terrorist acts was based on Section 11 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution (Pate 2014) that provides that the National Assembly shall promulgate laws for public safety and the public order of the federation (FGN 1999). The government has relied on constitutional provisions against criminality, violent protest or dissent instead of formulating security measures to deal with Boko Haram’s terrorism.

References

  1. Adebayo, H. (2015). Bill to Create North East Development Commission Passes Second Reading. Accessed on 31st August 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/nnorth-east/195237-bill-to-create-north-east-development-commission-passes-second-reading.html
  2. Ackerman, D. (2014). The rise of Radical Islamic Terrorism in Africa: State Collapse vs. State Dysfunction. Unpublished Thesis (MA) University of the Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  3. Adele, B. (2013). The Boko Haram Crisis and Nigeria’s External Relations. British Journal of Arts and Social Science, II (11): 126–139.Google Scholar
  4. Adetayo, O. (2016). Buhari Considers Swapping B’Haram Detainees for Chibok Girls. Accessed on 1st May 2017 from http://punchng.com/buhari-considers-swapping-bharam-detainees-chibok-girls/
  5. African Statistical Year Book (2014). Economic Statistics in Africa: Status, Challenges and Way Forward.Google Scholar
  6. African Development Bank Group (2014). AfDB and Nigeria: Leveraging Partnerships for Economic Transformation and Inclusive Growth. Accessed on 20th May 2016 from http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Nigeria_-_2013_-_Country_Profile_-_Leveraging_Partnerships_for_Economic_Transformation_and_Inclusive_Growth.pdf
  7. Agbakwuru, J. (2016). Why Army Cut Supply of Fertilisers in Adamawa, Yobe, Adamawa-Buratai. Accessed on 29th October 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/army-cut-supply-fertiliser-adamawa-yobe-adamawa-buratai/
  8. Agbambu, C. (2016). Troops Kill 2 Boko Haram Suspects in Borno. Accessed on 14th November 2016 from http://tribuneonlineng.com/troops-kill-2-boko-haram-terrosists-borno/
  9. Aghedo, I and Eke, J.S. (2013). From Alms to Arms: The Almajiri Phenomenon and Internal Security in Northern Nigeria. The Korean Journal of Policy Studies, 28 (3): 97–123.Google Scholar
  10. Ajakaiye, O., Jerome, A.T., Nabena, D. and Alaba, O.A. (2015). Understanding the relationship between growth and employment in Nigeria (No. 2015/124). WIDER Working Paper.Google Scholar
  11. Ajayi, O. and Marama, N. (2016). Lt. Colonel, Four Soldiers Killed in B/Haram Ambush as Another Chibok Girl Rescued with 10-month-old Baby. Accessed on 6th November 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/lt-colonel-four-soldiers-killed-bharam-ambush-another-chibok-girl-rescued-10-month-old-baby/
  12. Akhaine, S. (2016). Northern Governors Move against Provocative Preaching. Accessed on 1st November 2016 from http://guardian.ng/news/northern-governors-move-against-provocative-preaching/
  13. Akinbi, O.J. (2015). Examining the Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for a Permanent Resolution of the Crisis. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 3 (8): 32–45.Google Scholar
  14. Akinola, A.O. and Tella, O. (2013). Boko Haram Terrorism and Nigeria’s Security Dilemma: Rethinking the State’s Capacity. International Journal of Innovative Social Sciences and Humanities Research, 1 (3): 70–78.Google Scholar
  15. Akioye, S. (2016). How we will respond to Airport Terrorism, by Air Force. Accessed on 9th November 2016 from http://thenationonlineng.net/well-respond-airport-terrorism-air-force/
  16. Aljazeera, 13th October (2016). Nigeria: Boko Haram ‘Releases 21 Chibok Girls’. Accessed on 7th November 2016 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/10/nigeria-boko-haram-releases-21-chibok-girls-161013102746662.html
  17. Alli, Y. (2016). N4.75bn Arms Cash: Obanikoro Refunds N100. 4m to EFCC…may regain freedom. Accessed on 29th October 2016 from http://thenationonlineng.net/n4-75bn-arms-cash-obanikoro-refunds-n100-4m-efcc-may-regain-freedom/
  18. Alli, Y. (2017). EFCC raises panel to grill ex-SGF Lawal, Seven others. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/efcc-raises-panel-grill-ex-sgf-lawal-seven-others/
  19. Alli, Y. and Joel, D. (2015). Military Deploys Drones to Battle Boko Haram. Accessed on 14th November 2016 from http://thenationonlineng.net/military-deploys-drones-battle-boko-haram/
  20. Allison, S. (2016). Think Again: What Does #BringBackOurGirls Mean for Buhari. Accessed on 9th November 2016 from https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/think-again-what-does-bringbackourgirls-mean-for-buhari
  21. Amnesty International (2015). Stars on their Shoulders. Blood on their Hands: War Crimes Committed by the Nigerian Military.Google Scholar
  22. Amnesty International (2016). Amnesty International Report 2015/2016: The State of the World’s Human Rights.Google Scholar
  23. Awofala, A.O. and Sopekan, O.S. (2013). Recent Curriculum Reforms in Primary and Secondary Schools in Nigeria in the new Millennium. Journal of Education and Practice, 4 (5): 98–107.Google Scholar
  24. Azumah, J. (2015). Boko Haram in Retrospect. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 26 (1): 33–52.Google Scholar
  25. Barkindo, A. and Bryans, S. (2016). De-Radicalising Prisoners in Nigeria: Developing a Basic Prison Based Deradicalisation Programme. Journal for Deradicalisation, 7: 1–25.Google Scholar
  26. Brinkel, T. and Ait-Hida, S. (2012). Boko Haram and Jihad in Nigeria. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 40 (2): 1–21.Google Scholar
  27. Campbell, J. (2014). United States Policy to Counter Nigeria’s Boko Haram. Council for Preventive Action. Council Special Report No. 70, November 2014.Google Scholar
  28. CBN (2014). Central Bank of Nigeria. Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Economic Report – 2014.Google Scholar
  29. CBN (2015). Central Bank of Nigeria. Economic Report for the First Half of 2015.Google Scholar
  30. Chizea, B. and Iyare, T. (2006). Nigeria’s Raging Ethnic Conflicts: The Role of Small Arms and Private Military Companies (PMCs). The Constitution, 6 (1): 71–100.Google Scholar
  31. Buchanan-Clarke, S. and Lekalake, R. (2016). Extremism in Africa: Public opinion from the Sahel, Lake Chad, and the Horn. Afrobarometer Policy Paper No. 32.Google Scholar
  32. Daniel, S. And Omonobi, K. (2015). $2.9b Arms Deal: My Story, by Dasuki. Accessed on 20th July 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/11/2-9bn-arms-deal-my-story-by-dasuki/
  33. Dasuki, M. (2013). The Fight against Terrorism and Piracy. Paper Presented by National Security Adviser, Mohammed Sambo Dasuki at the 10th Regional Meeting (West Africa) of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly from 17th-19th July 2013.Google Scholar
  34. Dietrich, K. (2015). “When We Can’t See the Enemy, Civilians Become the Enemy”: Living Through Nigeria’s Six-Year Insurgency. Center for Civilians in Conflict.Google Scholar
  35. Ejike, S. (2017). Judge disqualifies self from Boko Haram Case. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://www.tribuneonlineng.com/judge-disqualifies-self-boko-haram-case/
  36. Eneanya, A. (2009). Policy Research, Analysis and Effective Policy Making in Nigeria. Lagos: Concept Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Erunke, J. (2017). Air Force bombs Boko Haram gathering, sets their structures ablaze. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/air-force-bombs-boko-haram-gathering-sets-structures-ablaze/
  38. Ewi, M. (2015). After 100 days in office, Boko Haram remains a major challenge for Nigeria’s new president. Accessed on 2nd November 2016 from https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/buharis-make-or-break-strategy-againFst-boko-haram
  39. Fafunwa, A. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. George Allen and Unwin Ltd: London.Google Scholar
  40. Fapohunda, O. (2017). Protecting Human Rights in Times of Insurgency and Civil Disorder. LAWYER: A Thisday Weekly Pull-Out, June 27, 2017.Google Scholar
  41. Fashagba, J. (2009). Legislative Oversight under the Nigerian Presidential System. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 15 (4): 439–459.Google Scholar
  42. Federal Government of Nigeria (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Accessed on April 25th 2016 from http://nass.gov.ng/document/download/5820
  43. Federal Government of Nigeria (2011a). Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2011. Accessed on 25th April 2016 from http://nass.gov.ng/document/download/5944
  44. Federal Government of Nigeria (2011b). Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act, 2011. Accessed on 25th April 2016 from http://nass.gov.ng/document/download/5943
  45. Federal Government of Nigeria (2012). Money Laundering (Prohibition) (Amendment) Act, 2012 Accessed on 25th April 2016 from http://nass.gov.ng/document/download/5948
  46. Federal Government of Nigeria (2013). Terrorism (Prevention) (Amendment) Act, 2013. Accessed on 25th April 2016 from http://nass.gov.ng/document/download/5951
  47. Federal Ministry of Education (2015). Education for All 2015 National Review: Nigeria EFA Review Report 2000-2014.Google Scholar
  48. Federal Ministry of Works (2013). Compendium Report on Road Infrastructure and Related Development in Nigeria – An Investor’s Manual.Google Scholar
  49. Foster, V. and Pushak, N. (2011). Nigeria’s infrastructure: a Continental Perspective. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series.Google Scholar
  50. Gbadebo, B. (2016). How Nigeria was Ripped-off in $470m CCTV Project – Reps C’ttee. Accessed on 3rd November 2016 from http://leadership.ng/news/495046/nigeria-ripped-off-470m-cctv-project-reps-cttee.
  51. Gbandi, E.C. and Amissah, G. (2014). Financing Options for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs) in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10 (1): 327–340.Google Scholar
  52. GIABA (2013). FATF Report. Terrorist Financing in West Africa.Google Scholar
  53. GIABA (2014a). 2013 Annual Report. Intergovernmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa.Google Scholar
  54. GIABA (2014b). Sixth Follow Up Report: Mutual Evaluation, Nigeria. Intergovernmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa.Google Scholar
  55. Grace, A. (2014). Assessment of Prison Overcrowding in Nigeria: Implications for Rehabilitation, Reformation and Reintegration of Inmates. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IOSR-JHSS), 19 (3): 21–26.Google Scholar
  56. Haruna, A. (2016a). Nigerian Troops Ambush Boko Haram in Borno, Recover High Calibre Weapons — Army. Accessed on 14th November 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/206939-nigerian-troops-ambush-boko-haram-borno-recover-high-calibre-weapons-army.html
  57. Haruna, A. (2016b). 250 Former Civilian-JTF Members Join Nigerian Army. Accessed on 22nd June 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/207345-250-former-civilian-jtf-become-nigerian-soldiers-join-army.html
  58. Haruna, A. (2016c). Boko Haram victims dying of starvation as Borno officials steal relief materials. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/205489-boko-haram-victims-dying-starvation-borno-officials-steal-relief-materials.html
  59. Haruna, A. (2017). Boko Haram kills 680 civilian JTF members in three years – Official. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/236363-boko-haram-kills-680-civilian-jtf-members-three-years-official.html
  60. Hoechner, H. (2014). Traditional Quranic Students (Almajirai) in Nigeria: Fair Game for Unfair Accusation. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 63–84.Google Scholar
  61. Humanitarian Response Plan (2015). Humanitarian Response Plan: January–December 2016.Google Scholar
  62. Human Rights Watch (2016). World Report 2016: Events of 2015.Google Scholar
  63. ICC (2015). Report on Preliminary Examination Activities (2015).Google Scholar
  64. Igbokwe, C.O. (2015). Recent Curriculum Reforms at the Basic Education Level in Nigeria Aimed at Catching Them Young to Create Change. American Journal of Educational Research, 3 (1): 31–37.Google Scholar
  65. Ilegbinosa, I.A. and Jumbo, E. (2015). Small and Medium Scale Enterprises and Economic Growth in Nigeria: 1975-2012. International Journal of Business and Management, 10 (3): 203–216.Google Scholar
  66. Iroegbu, S. (2016b). 800 Boko Haram Suspects Offered Olive Branch by Army. Accessed on 8th April 2016 from http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/04/08/800-boko-haram-insurgents-offered-olive-branch-by-army/
  67. Iroegbu, S. (2016c). NAF Launches ‘Operation Gama Aiki’ to Rid Northern Borno of Boko Haram. Accessed on 9th November 2016 from http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/06/19/naf-launches-operation-gama-aiki-to-rid-northern-borno-of-boko-haram/
  68. Iroegbu, S. and Olugbode, M. (2014). How Cracks between Officers, Soldiers in 7DIV Hinder War against Terror. Accessed on 27th August 2016 from http://www.codewit.com/nigeria-news/20506-how-cracks-between-officers-soldiers-in-7div-hinder-war-against-terror
  69. Isine, I. (2014). High-level Corruption Rocks $470million CCTV Project that Could Secure Buja. Accessed on 3rd November 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/163975-high-level-corruption-rocks-470million-cctv-project-secure-abuja.html
  70. Ismaila, H. (2014). IEDs Incidents in Nigeria, International Assistance, Synergy and the Way Forward. Paper Delivered at the CCWII Meeting of Expert in Geneva.Google Scholar
  71. Jackson, R. (2014). #BringBackOurGirls: Addressing the Growing Threat of Boko Haram. Testimony of Ambassador Robert P. Jackson, Acting Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Subcommittee on African Affairs.Google Scholar
  72. Jacob, J. and Akpan, I. (2015). Silencing Boko Haram: Mobile Phone Blackout and Counterinsurgency in Nigeria’s Northeast Region. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 4 (1): 1–17.Google Scholar
  73. Joel, D. (2016). Yobe Suspends Traditional Rulers for Diverting IDPs Food. Assessed on 27th July 2016 from http://thenationonlineng.net/yobe-suspends-traditional-rulers-diverting-ipds-food/
  74. Maharaj, B. Habib, A. Chetty, I. Favis, M. Khan, S. Sithole, P. and Sookrajh, R. (2008). Religion and Development. In Adam, H and Maharaj, B. eds. Giving and Solidarity: Resource Flows for Poverty Alleviation in South Africa. Human Sciences Research Council, 79–119.Google Scholar
  75. Malik, S. (2015). Civilian JTF: The Making of a Human Time Bomb by Samuel Malik. Accessed on 18th August 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/features-and-interviews/183308-civilian-jtf-the-making-of-a-human-time-bomb-by-samuel-malik
  76. Marama, N. (2016). ‘Boko Haram Kills 13 takes over five Borno communities’ Accessed on June 7th 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/05/boko-haram-kills-13-takes-five-borno-communites/
  77. Marama, N. (2017). Borno begins Counter-Insurgency Narrative. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/borno-begins-counter-insurgency-narrative/
  78. Mohammed, K. (2014). The Message and Methods of Boko Haram. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 9–32.Google Scholar
  79. Mo Ibrahim Foundation (2016). 2016 African Ibrahim Index of African Governance.Google Scholar
  80. Muhammed, A. (2016). DSS Busts ISIS Cell in Kano. Accessed on 9th June 2016 from http://guardian.ng/news/army-court-martials-20-soldiers/
  81. Mutum, R. (2016). Boko Haram: Air Force intensifies raids with ‘Operation Gama Aiki’. Accessed on 9th November 2016 from http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/general/boko-haram-air-force-intensifies-raids-with-operation-gama-aiki/151853.html
  82. Musa, N. (2016). Army Court Martials 20 Soldiers. Accessed on 1st September 2016 from http://guardian.ng/news/army-court-martials-20-soldiers/
  83. NACTEST (2014). National Counter-Terrorism Strategy (NACTEST). Office of the National Security Adviser.Google Scholar
  84. National Bureau of Statistics (2014). LSMS-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture General Household Survey Panel 2012/2013.Google Scholar
  85. NFIU (2014). Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit. NFIU 2013 Progress Report.Google Scholar
  86. NFIU (2015). Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit. Activity Report 2014.Google Scholar
  87. NIS (2013). Monthly News Magazine, August 2013. Volume 1 No. 1.Google Scholar
  88. Nnanna, O. (2016). The Capture of Sambisa Forest. Accessed on 6th January 2017 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/12/capture-sambisa-forest/
  89. Nnochiri, I. (2017). FG okays trial of 1600 alleged Boko Haram terrorists, frees 220 suspects. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/weve-time-prosecute-boko-haram-cases-says-justice-binta-nyako/
  90. Ochelle, F. (2015). Nigeria’s Power Generation is now 4,600 Megawatts: Will This Speed up the Impending Electricity Tariff Hike. Accessed on 29th October 2016 from http://venturesafrica.com/power-generation-in-nigeria-now-4600-megawatts-will-this-speed-up-the-impending-electricity-tariff-hike/
  91. Ojeme, V. (2016). Buhari Furious over Deaths of Malnourished IDPs in Borno. Accessed on 28th August 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/buhari-furious-deaths-malnourished-idps-borno/
  92. Olaifa, B. (2017). Troops capture Boko Haram commander, kill four. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/residents-celebrate-soldiers-victory-boko-haram-yobe/
  93. Olaoye, T. Ajilore, T. Akinluwade, K. Omole, F. and Adetunji, A. (2016). Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Need for Renewable Energy Mix. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 4(1):1–8Google Scholar
  94. Olawoyin, O. (2017). Nigeria’s current electricity generating capacity is 6,803MW. Accessed on 21st November 2017 from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more-news/240258-nigerias-current-electricity-generating-capacity-6803-mw-fashola.html
  95. Omitola, B. (2014). Between Boko Haram and Fulani Herdsmen: Organised Crime and Insecurity in Nigeria. Paper Presented at the 5th Institute of Security Conference on Crime and Crime Reduction, 14 and 15 August, Sandton, South Africa.Google Scholar
  96. Omonobi, K. (2013). Jonathan Creates New Army Division, Sends 8,000 Troops after Boko Haram. Accessed on 7th July 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/08/jonathan-creates-new-army-division-sends-8000-troops-after-boko-haram/
  97. Omonobi, K. (2016a). Army Foils Female Bombers’ Attack on Borno IDP Camps. Accessed on 5th July 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/07/army-foils-female-bombers-attack-borno-idps-camp/
  98. Omonobi, K. (2016b). Boko Haram: Insurgents now Disguise as Vigilantes, Hunters – Defence HQ. Accessed on 1st November 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/boko-haram-insurgents-now-disguise-vigilantes-hunters-defence-hq/
  99. Onapajo, H. (2016). Has Nigeria Defeated Boko Haram? An Appraisal of the Counter-Terrorism Approach under the Buhari Administration. Strategic Analysis, 41 (1): 61–73.Google Scholar
  100. Onapajo, H. Uzodike, U.O. and Whetho, A. (2012). Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: The International Dimension. South African Journal of International Affairs, 19 (3): 337–357.Google Scholar
  101. Onuoha, F.C. (2013). Porous Borders and Boko Haram’s Arms Smuggling Operations in Nigeria. Al Jazeera Center for Studies, 8.Google Scholar
  102. Onuoha, F.C. (2014). Boko Haram and the Evolving Salafi Jihadist Threat in Nigeria. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 158–191.Google Scholar
  103. Onuoha, J. and Ugwueze, M.I. (2014). United States Security Strategy and the Management of Boko Haram Crisis in Nigeria. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 2 (3): 22–43.Google Scholar
  104. Otu, S.E. and Aro, G.C. (2013). Dealing with Professionalism and Acquiring and Managing Legitimacy in a Constitutional Democratic Policing in Nigeria: Where Goes the Procedural Justice Approach. JIJIS, 13, 149–169.Google Scholar
  105. Oyeyinka, O.B. (2010). FSS 2020 International Conference. SMME: Issues, challenges and Prospects. Accessed on 30th October 2016 from http://www.Cenbank.org/fss/wed/SMME.
  106. Ovuakporie, E. and Agbakwuru, J. (2016). Reps Grill IGP over Missing Guns, N1.9m Exhibits. Accessed on 3rd November 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/reps-grill-igp-missing-guns-n1-9m-exhibits/
  107. Paden, J. (2015). Religion and Conflict in Nigeria. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace: Special Report.Google Scholar
  108. Pate, P. (2015). “Boko Haram: An Assessment of Strengths, Vulnerabilities, and Policy Options.” Report to the Strategic Multilayer Assessment Office, Department of Defense, and the Office of University Programs, Department of Homeland Security. College Park MD: START, January 2014.Google Scholar
  109. Patrick, C. (2016). Nigerian Air Force conducts counter terrorism simulation. Accessed on 27th November 2017 from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more-news/214888-nigerian-air-force-conducts-counter-terrorism-simulation.html
  110. Premium Times, 11th April2016. Borno Unfolds Post Boko Haram Plans for Civilian JTF. Accessed on 30th August 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/nnorth-east/201592-borno-unfolds-post-boko-haram-plans-civilian-jtf.html
  111. Premium Times, 19th May 2016. Nigeria has Capacity to Generate 12,000 MW of Electricity — Fashola. Accessed on 2nd November 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/business/business-news/203683-nigeria-capacity-generate-12000-mw-electricity-fashola.html
  112. Premium Times, 20th May 2017. Released Chibok girls reunited with parents. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/efcc-raises-panel-grill-ex-sgf-lawal-seven-others/
  113. Premium Times, 27th August 2017. Rapists on rampage in Borno IDP camp, victims say. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/nnorth-east/241692-rapists-on-rampage-in-borno-idp-camp-victims-say.html
  114. Punch, 18th July 2016. Army Releases 250 Boko Haram Suspects. Accessed on 18th July 2016 from http://punchng.com/army-releases-250-boko-haram-suspects/
  115. Runsewe, O. (2016). Nigeria Adopts the ‘Drone War’ Approach in the Fight against Boko Haram: Here are Other Modern Warfare Options they can take on. Accessed on 14th November 2016 from https://venturesafrica.com/nigeria-joins-the-drone-wars-in-its-fight-against-boko-haram-here-are-other-weapons-they-could-use/
  116. Sahara Reporters, 3rd August 2017. U.S. Approves Sale of 12 A-29 Super Tucano Aircraft to Nigeria Despite Concerns. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://saharareporters.com/2017/08/03/us-approves-sale-12-29-super-tucano-aircraft-nigeria-despite-concerns
  117. Salau, A. (2016). Shettima: NGOs Reaping from IDPs Woes. Accessed on 28th June 2016 from http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/general/shettima-ngos-reaping-from-idps-woes/152957.html
  118. Serrano, R. and Pieri, Z. (2014). By the Numbers: The Nigerian State’s Efforts to Counter Boko Haram. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 192–212.Google Scholar
  119. Sidi, M. (2015). The Humanitarian Consequences of the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria. Paper Presented at the African Union Regional Consultative Meeting for the West African Region for the Development of the Common African Position on the World Humanitarian Summit, Istanbul Turkey 2016 at Abuja 26–28 August 2015.Google Scholar
  120. SMEDAN/NBS (2013). SMEDAN and National Bureau of Statistics Collaborative Survey: Selected Findings.Google Scholar
  121. Solomon, H. (2012). Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria. The RUSI Journal, 157 (4): 6–11.Google Scholar
  122. Strochlic, N. (2014). Nigeria’s Do-It-Yourself Boko Haram Busters. Accessed on 29th August 2016 from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/05/16/nigeria-s-do-it-yourself-boko-haram-busters.html
  123. Sudan Tribune, 17th July 2014. Sudan Extradites Boko Haram Suspect to Nigeria. Accessed on 5th November 2015 from http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article51714
  124. Suleiman, A. (2016). Sultan Lashes Politicians for Sharing $15billion Arms Cash. Accessed on 20th July 2016 from http://thenationonlineng.net/sultan-lashes-politicians-sharing-15billion-arms-cash/
  125. Taiwo, F.J. (2013). Transforming the Almajiri Education for the Benefit of the Nigerian Society. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3 (9): 67–72.Google Scholar
  126. Tejpar, J. and Albuquerque, A. (2015). Challenges to Peace and Security in Africa: The Role of ECOWAS. Studies in African Security.Google Scholar
  127. The Abuja Declaration (2016). The Abuja Declaration on the Treatment of Violent Extremist Offenders. Nigeria’s countering Violent Extremism Programme. April 14th, 2016. Accessed on 4th September 2016 from http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/delegations/nigeria/documents/press_corner/news/20160415-abuja-declaration-adopted-14-pril-2016-final-version_en.pdf
  128. The Guardian, 8th November 2015. State of Nigeria’s Roads. Accessed on 7th November 2016 from http://guardian.ng/opinion/state-of-nigerias-roads/
  129. The Nation, 4th January 2017. Army Deploys Troops to Southern Kaduna. Accessed on 4th January 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/army-deploys-troops-southern-kaduna/
  130. The Nigerian Observer, 17th October 2014. Nigeria Unveils Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Programme. Accessed on April 30th 2016 from https://issuu.com/nigerian_observer/docs/nigerian_observer_17-10-2014
  131. The Nation, 6th July 2017. Army kills 404 insurgents in mop-up operations in Borno. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/army-kills-404-insurgents-in-mop-up-operations-in-borno/
  132. The Nation, 26th September 2017. Police Arrest, hand over Boko Haram commander to Army. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/police-arrest-hand-over-boko-haram-commander-to-army/
  133. The Nation, 30th September 2017. Insurgency: USAID trains 7,169 teachers in Borno. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from http://thenationonlineng.net/insurgency-usaid-trains-7169-teachers-borno/
  134. The Sun, 20th June 2016. Boko Haram’s Indoctrination Book, Guduma, Exposed. Accessed on 2nd November 2016 from http://sunnewsonline.com/boko-harams-indoctrination-book-guduma-exposed/
  135. Thisday, 31st May 2016. Of CCTV Camera and Security. Accessed on 3rd November 2016 from http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/05/31/of-cctv-cameras-and-security/
  136. Thisday, 15th August 2016. Bill Gates donates $1m for Food, Farming Aids to Borno. Accessed on 7th November 2016 from http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/08/15/bill-gates-donates-1m-for-food-farming-aids-to-borno/
  137. Toki, T.O., Gambari, M. A and Hadi, M.I. (2015). Peace Building and Inter-Religious Dialogue in Nigeria. Journal of Islam in Nigeria, 1 (1): 104–116.Google Scholar
  138. UBEC (2015). Universal Basic Education Commission, Almajiri Education Programme Unit: Update on Almajiri Education Programme.Google Scholar
  139. Udounwa, S. (2013). Boko Haram: Developing New Strategies to Combat Terrorism in Nigeria. Unpublished Thesis (MSS) United States Army War College.Google Scholar
  140. Umar, A. (2013). Nigeria and the Boko Haram Sect: Adopting a Better Strategy for Resolving the Crisis. Unpublished Thesis (MA) Naval Postgraduate School. Monterey, California.Google Scholar
  141. UNDP (2015a). Human Development Report 2015Google Scholar
  142. UNDP (2015b). Annual Report 2015. UNDP Nigeria.Google Scholar
  143. UNDP (2015c). National Human Development Report 2015. Human Security and Development in Nigeria.Google Scholar
  144. UNDP (2015d). Regional and Multi-Country Project Document. Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa: A Development Approach.Google Scholar
  145. UNDP (2016). Annual Report Progress 2015. ECOWAS/EU Small Arms Project.Google Scholar
  146. UNESCO. (2015). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2015. Water for a Sustainable World.Google Scholar
  147. UNDP (2017). Consolidated Final Report of the Administrative Agent for the Nigerian Safe Schools Initiative MDTF for the Period 1 January to 31 December 2016. Accessed on 30th November 2017 from file:///C:/Users/MUYIWA/Downloads/Final%20Narrative%20and%202016%20Financial%20Report_Nigeria%20Safe%20Schools.pdfGoogle Scholar
  148. UNHCR (2016). Nigeria Situation – UNHCR Regional Update No. 24. 1–31 May 2016.Google Scholar
  149. United States Department of State (2015a). Country Reports on Terrorism 2014. Accessed on 15th October 2016 from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf
  150. United States Department of State (2015b). International Narcotics Control Report Strategy, Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes. Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. Accessed on 15th October 2016 from https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239560.pdf
  151. United States Department of State (2016a). Country Reports on Terrorism 2015. Accessed on 14th September 2016 from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258249.pdf
  152. United States Department of State (2016b). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015. Accessed on 14th September 2016 from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252927.pdf
  153. United States Department of State (2016c). International Narcotics Control Report Strategy, Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes. Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. Accessed on 15th October 2016 from https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253983.pdf
  154. UNODC (2009). Handbook on Criminal Justice Responses to Terrorism: Criminal Justice Handbook Series.Google Scholar
  155. UNODC (2014). UNODC Annual Report 2014. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Google Scholar
  156. Vanguard, 21stJune 2015. Army Chief in Maiduguri; Changes Code to Operation Lafiya Dole. Accessed on 28th August 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/07/army-chief-in-maiduguri-changes-code-to-operation-lafiya-dole/
  157. Vanguard, 15th August 2016. Japanese Govt. Donates $3m to Assist Boko Haram Victims. Accessed on 4th November 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/08/boko-haram-japanese-govt-donates-3m-assist-victims-2/
  158. Vanguard, 7th November 2016. Book Haram: Army Releases 1271 Detainees in Maiduguri. Accessed on 7th November 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/boko-haram-army-releases-1271-detainees-maiduguri/
  159. Vanguard, 23rd June 2017. DSS busts terrorists’ plot to attack Kano, infiltrate Shiites on sallah day. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/06/dss-busts-terrorists-plot-attack-kano-infiltrate-shiites-sallah-day/
  160. Vanguard, 18th July 2017. North East: Nigerian military liberated over 25 towns during Jonathan, new book reveals. Accessed on 1st December 2017 from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/07/north-east-nigerian-military-liberated-25-towns-jonathan-new-book-reveals/
  161. Yusha’u, M.A., Tsafe, A.K., Babangida, S.I. and Lawal, N.I. (2013). Problems and Prospects of Integrated Almajiri Education in Northern Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(3): 125–134.Google Scholar
  162. Yusuf, U. (2016). Boko Haram: 200 Islamic Clerics on Counter- radicalisation Training in N-East. Accessed on 14th November 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/boko-haram-200-islamic-clerics-counter-radicalisation-training-n-east/
  163. 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative (2016). Nigeria Fractured and Forgotten: Discrimination and Violence along Religious Fault Lines.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olumuyiwa Temitope Faluyi
    • 1
  • Sultan Khan
    • 2
  • Adeoye O. Akinola
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.School of Social ScienceUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa
  3. 3.Faculty of Commerce, Administration & LawUniversity of ZululandKwaDlangezwaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations