In this comparative study, the carbides of TBM cutter ring steel at different tempering temperatures of 530 and 560 °C, were studied using ASPEX inclusion automatic analyzer and EPMA, respectively. The results show that the number of carbides increased by about 180% at the tempering temperature of 530 °C. The inclusions of test steels were characterized through the carbides and carbides with the core of Al2O3. The thermodynamics results indicate that Al2O3 inclusions were generated in the liquid phase, and carbides started to form in the solid–liquid two-phase region. Al2O3 inclusion promoted the formation of carbides through serving as preferred nucleation sites. A lower temperature in the solid phase increases the difference value of actual solubility product and equilibrium solubility product, thus it is beneficial to the formation of carbide. The thermodynamic calculations are in accordance with the experimental results.
Carbide Precipitation Tempering TBM cutter ring
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The authors are thankful for the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. U1560203 and 51274031), and the Beijing Key Laboratory of Special Melting and Preparation of High-End Metal Materials in the School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering of University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
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