Modeling of Steel–Slag–Air Three-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting Strand

  • Xubin Zhang
  • Wei Chen
  • Lifeng ZhangEmail author
  • Piotr Roman Scheller
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


In the current study, a three-dimensional mold model was established by Fluent software to investigate the fluid flow of three phases (steel–slag–air) in the mold. A quarter of the mold was simulated through the k-ε model, volume of fluid (VOF) model, solidification model and continuum surface force (CFS) method. The interfacial tension between liquid steel and liquid slag and the oscillation of the mold were added into the model to show the 3D steel–slag interface. The liquid steel exiting from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) existed as the upper backflow and lower backflow, and flowed towards the wide face and the SEN. The largest speed on the steel–slag interface was located at approximately 0.25 m from the narrow face, which was approximately 0.15 m/s. Under the influence of the upper backflow and the movement of the shell, the slag on the steel–slag interface moved from the narrow face to the SEN, and infiltrated into the gap, which affected the lubrication in the gap.


Three-phase flow Steel–slag interface Simulation Continuous casting 



The authors are grateful for support from the National Science Foundation China (Grant No. U1860206), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. FRF-TP-15-001C2), Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Recycling and Extraction of Metals (GREM) and the High Quality Steel Consortium (HQSC) at the School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering at University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), China.


  1. 1.
    Mizoguchi S, Ohashi T, Saeki T (1981) Continuous casting of steel. Annu Rev Mater Sci 11(1):151–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mills KC, Ramirezlopez P, Lee PD, Santillana B, Thomas BG, Morales R (2014) Looking into continuous casting mould. Ironmaking Steelmaking 41(4):242–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu Z, Sun Z, Li B (2017) Modeling of quasi-four-phase flow in continuous casting mold using hybrid Eulerian and Lagrangian approach. Metall Mater Trans B 48(2):1248–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mills KC, Fox AB (2003) The role of mould fluxes in continuous casting-so simple yet so complex. ISIJ Int 43(10):1479–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mills KC, Fox AB, Li Z, Thackray RP (2005) Performance and properties of mould fluxes. Ironmaking Steelmaking 32(1):26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Meng YA, Thomas Brian G (2003) Modeling transient slag-layer phenomena in the shell/mold gap in continuous casting of steel. Metall Mater Trans B 34(5):707–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang X, Chen W, Scheller PR, Ren Y, Zhang L (2018) Mathematical modeling of initial solidification and slag infiltration at the meniscus of slab continuous casting mold. JOMGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hibbeler LC, Thomas BG (2013) Mold slag entrainment mechanisms in continuous casting molds. Iron Steel Technol 10(10):121–136Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramirez-Lopez PE, Lee PD, Mills KC, Santillana B (2010) A new approach for modelling slag infiltration and Solidification in a continuous casting mould. Isij Int 50(50):1797–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sengupta J, Shin H-J, Thomas BG, Kim S-H (2006) Micrograph evidence of meniscus solidification and sub-surface microstructure evolution in continuous-cast ultralow-carbon steels. Acta Mater 54(4):1165–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang Y, Zhang L (2011) Fluid flow-related transport phenomena in steel slab continuous casting strands under electromagnetic brake. Metall Mater Trans B 42(6):1319–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang X, Chen W, Zhang L (2017) A coupled model on fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification in continuous casting mold. China Foundry 14(5):416–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang X, Chen W, Yang W, Zhang L (2018) Study of oscillation marks and hooks at the corner in continuous casting steel slabs. In: 7th International congress on science and technology of steelmakingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xubin Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lifeng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Piotr Roman Scheller
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Metallurgical and Ecological EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB)BeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Recycling and Extraction of MetalUniversity of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB)BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations