In this chapter, Shnirelman examines development in history education in Russia since the 1990s. Within this framework, Russian schools and identity politics are discussed, as well as the transition in textbook production and thematics from the Soviet era. The 1990s ushered in the ‘civilisational’ approach in Russian education, which had an influence on the Russia-centric bias in federal textbooks. Shnirelman goes on to discuss xenophobia and the depiction of minorities in federal textbooks, with Russian Jewry, the Kazan’ Tatars and the North Caucasus region as important case studies. With the decline in liberal approaches in the Russian ‘history wars’, and the elimination of the regional component to school history in 2007, Russia’s new generation of textbooks are monopolised by three publishing houses.
The research was supported by the Russian Foundation of Fundamental Studies, project no. 15-31-11109.
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