• Victor A. Shnirelman


In this chapter, Shnirelman examines development in history education in Russia since the 1990s. Within this framework, Russian schools and identity politics are discussed, as well as the transition in textbook production and thematics from the Soviet era. The 1990s ushered in the ‘civilisational’ approach in Russian education, which had an influence on the Russia-centric bias in federal textbooks. Shnirelman goes on to discuss xenophobia and the depiction of minorities in federal textbooks, with Russian Jewry, the Kazan’ Tatars and the North Caucasus region as important case studies. With the decline in liberal approaches in the Russian ‘history wars’, and the elimination of the regional component to school history in 2007, Russia’s new generation of textbooks are monopolised by three publishing houses.



The research was supported by the Russian Foundation of Fundamental Studies, project no. 15-31-11109.

Further Reading

  1. Kaplan, V. ‘History Teaching in Post-Soviet Russia: Coping with Antithetical Traditions’. In Educational Reform in Post-Soviet Russia, edited by B. Eklof, L. Holmes, and V. Kaplan, 247–271. London: Frank Cass, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. Shnirelman, V. ‘In Search of the Prestige Ancestors. Ethno-nationalism and School Textbooks’. Information Mitteilungen Communications 20 (1999) 1, 45–52.Google Scholar
  3. Shnirelman, V. ‘The Myths of Descent: The Views of the Remote Past, as Reflected in School Textbooks in Contemporary Russia’. Public Archaeology 3 (2003) 1, 33–51.Google Scholar
  4. Shnirelman, V. ‘Fostered Primordialism: The Identity and Ancestry of the North Caucasian Turks in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Milieu’. In The Construction and Deconstruction of National Histories in Slavic Eurasia, edited by T. Hayashi, 53–86. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, 2003.Google Scholar
  5. Shnirelman, V. ‘Purgas und Pureš: Urahnen der Mordwinen und Paradoxa der mordwinischen Identität’. In Mari und Mordwinen im heutigen Russland: Sprache, Kultur, Identität, edited by E. Khelimsky, 529–563. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz-Verlag, 2005.Google Scholar
  6. Shnirelman, V. ‘The Politics of a Name: Between Consolidation and Separation in the Northern Caucasus’. Acta Slavica Iaponica 23 (2006), 37–73.Google Scholar
  7. Shnirelman, V. ‘A Revolt of Social Memory: The Chechens and Ingush against the Soviet Historians’. In Reconstruction and Interaction of Slavic Eurasia and its Neighboring Worlds, edited by I. Osamu and U. Tomohiko, 273–307. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Shnirelman, V. ‘New Racism, “Clash of Civilizations” and Russia’. In Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia, edited by M. Laruelle, 125–144. London: Routledge, 2009.Google Scholar
  9. Shnirelman, V. ‘Stigmatized by History or by Historians? Peoples of Russia in School History Textbooks’. History and Memory 21 (2009) 2, 110–149.Google Scholar
  10. Zaida, J., and R. Zaida. ‘The Politics of Rewriting History: New History Textbooks and Curriculum Materials in Russia’. International Review of Education 49 (2003) 3–4, 363–384.Google Scholar
  11. Zaida, J. ‘The New History School Textbooks in the Russian Federation: 1992–2004’. Compare 37 (2007) 3, 291–306.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor A. Shnirelman
    • 1
  1. 1.Modern History and History DidacticsSapienza University of RomeRomaItaly

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