• Philip Gamaghelyan


Gamaghelyan sketches the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and its effects on competing historical narratives in the South Caucasus that have arisen in the post-Soviet era. The education debate post-independence centred on the question of historical objectivity. The initial lack of clear ideological guidelines rapidly gave way to revisionist nationalist narratives, which framed conflicts and the Armenian Genocide ethnically and as part of the myth of Armenian statehood. The Soviet-era mode of centralised textbook production remains intact, and the Ministry of Education maintains strict guidelines concerning the presentation and teaching of historical material. While this nationalist historiography has not been left unchallenged by a younger generation, textbooks still display a binary presentation of Armenian victimhood and Ottoman, Persian and Azerbaijani belligerence.

Further Reading

  1. Akpınar, A., S. Avetisyan, H. Balasanyan, F. Güllü, I. Kandolu, M. Karapetyan, et al. ‘History Education in Schools in Turkey and Armenia. A Critique and Alternatives’, Istanbul and Yerevan: History Foundation (Tarih Vakfı) and Imagine Center for Conflict Transformation. Caucasus Edition, June 2017. Accessed 4 February 2018.
  2. Gamaghelyan, P., and S. Rumyansev. ‘History Education in the South Caucasus’. Turkish Policy Quarterly 12 (1) 2014. Accessed 4 February 2018.
  3. Khachatryan, S., S. Petrosyan, and G. Terzyan. ‘Assessment of Teacher Professional Development and Educational Content in the Context of Education Reforms in Armenia’. Yerevan: Open Society Foundations—Armenia, 2013. Accessed 9 February 2018.
  4. Palandjian, G. ‘The ABCs of Being Armenian: (Re)Turning to the National Identity in Post-Soviet Textbooks’. In Reconstructing Memory: School Textbooks and the Imagination of the Nation, ed. James Williams, 247–267. Rotterdam, Taipei, and Boston: Sense Publishers, 2014.Google Scholar
  5. Rumâncev, S. ‘Geroičeskij èpos i konstruirovanie obraza istoričeskogo vraga [Heroic Epic Poetry and a Construction of the Image of the Historical Enemy]’. In Studies of New Imperial History and Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Space, 441–468. Kazan, Russia: AB IMPERIO, 2/2005.Google Scholar
  6. Hovhannisyan, G. Armenia/EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA—P130182—Education Improvement Project—Procurement Plan (English). Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group, 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Gamaghelyan
    • 1
  1. 1.Modern History and History DidacticsSapienza University of RomeRomaItaly

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