• Nemer Frayha


Frayha explores the development of history textbooks and curricula in Lebanon, against the country’s multifaith background. The debates centre around controversies over history education after the National Reconciliation, beginning in 1989. Calls at the National Pact of Al-Taef for the standardisation of history led to debates among scholars, educators and historians. When work on history curricula and textbooks commenced in earnest, the diversity of ideas and arguments came to occupy considerable space in the discussions around the issue. Recent decisions taken by the government have led to arguments and controversies among Lebanese scholars. Frayha observes that religious communities have played an increasing role in the development of history curricular, often at the acquiescence of the government.

Further Reading

  1. Dakroub, M. ‘The Lebanese Historical Rhetoric: Point of View’. In Where Is the Writing of Lebanon’s History Heading? [in Arabic], 537–64. Beirut: Al-Maqassed Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  2. Educational Center for Research and Development (ECRD). History Curriculum. Beirut: ECRD Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. Faour, M., and A. Al Amine. University Students in Lebanon: Background and Attitudes. Beirut: LAES, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. Fares, L. ‘The Development of the History Curriculum in Lebanon during the Mandate Period 1920–1943’. MA dissertation, Lebanese University, 1983.Google Scholar
  5. Hamdan, K. The Lebanese Crisis. Beirut: Dar Al Farabi, 1998.Google Scholar
  6. Ismail, M. ‘Lebanon’s Social and Demographic Formation’. In Where Is the Writing of Lebanon’s History Heading? [in Arabic], 103–16. Beirut: Al-Maqassed Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. Kawtharany, W. Social and Political Orientations in Mount Lebanon and the Arab Middle-East. Beirut: Manshourat Bahsoun, 1986.Google Scholar
  8. Murr, M. L’Histoire du Liban-Phenicie, Geant des Histoires. Beirut: Edition Cadmous, 1971.Google Scholar
  9. Nassar, N. Toward a New Society [in Arabic]. Beirut: Dar Annahar, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Republic of Lebanon, Ministry of Education. Strategic Orientation for Education in Lebanon. Beirut: ECRD Press, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nemer Frayha
    • 1
  1. 1.Modern History and History DidacticsSapienza University of RomeRomaItaly

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