Advertisement

A Genetic Programming Approach to Integrate Multilayer CNN Features for Image Classification

  • Wei-Ta ChuEmail author
  • Hao-An Chu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11295)

Abstract

Fusing information extracted from multiple layers of a convolutional neural network has been proven effective in several domains. Common fusion techniques include feature concatenation and Fisher embedding. In this work, we propose to fuse multilayer information by genetic programming (GP). With the evolutionary strategy, we iteratively fuse multilayer information in a systematic manner. In the evaluation, we verify the effectiveness of discovered GP-based representations on three image classification datasets, and discuss characteristics of the GP process. This study is one of the few works to fuse multilayer information based on an evolutionary strategy. The reported preliminary results not only demonstrate the potential of the GP fusion scheme, but also inspire future study in several aspects.

Keywords

Genetic programming Convolutional neural networks Multilayer features Image classification 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was partially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology under the grant 107-2221-E-194-038-MY2 and 107-2218-E-002-054, and the Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations (AIM-HI) from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Sahaf, H., Al-Sahaf, A., Xue, B., Johnston, M., Zhang, M.: Automatically evolving rotation-invariant texture image descriptors by genetic programming. IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 21(1), 83–101 (2017)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chatfield, K., Simonyan, K., Vedaldi, A., Zisserman, A.: Return of the devil in the details: delving deep into convolutional networks. In: Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dosovitskiy, A., et al.: FlowNet: learning optical flow with convolutional networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fei-Fei, L., Fergus, R., Perona, P.: Learning generative visual models from few training examples: an incremental Bayesian approach tested on 101 object categories. In: Proceedings of CVPR Workshop of Generative Model Based Vision (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Griffin, G., Holub, A., Perona, P.: Caltech-256 object category dataset. Technical report, California Institute of Technology (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Holland, J.H.: Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control and Artificial Intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jia, Y., et al.: Caffe: convolutional architecture for fast feature embedding. In: Proceedings of ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 675–678 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koza, J.R.: Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. MIT Press, Cambridge (1992)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Hinton, G.E.: ImageNet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 1097–1105 (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, E., Xia, J., Du, P., Lin, C., Samat, A.: Integrating multilayer features of convolutional neural networks for remote sensing scene classification. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 55(10), 5653–5665 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liang, Y., Zhang, M., Browne, W.N.: Figure-ground image segmentation using genetic programming and feature selection. In: Proceedings of IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shao, L., Liu, L., Li, X.: Feature learning for image classification via multiobjective genetic programming. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 25(7), 1359–1371 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Simonyan, K., Zisserman, A.: Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Learning Representation (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Suganuma, M., Shirakawa, S., Nagao, T.: A genetic programming approach to designing convolutional neural network architectures. In: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pp. 497–504 (2017)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang, S., Ramanan, D.: Multi-scale recognition with DAG-CNNs. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang, X., Molchanov, P., Kautz, J.: Multilayer and multimodal fusion of deep neural networks for video classification. In: Proceedings of ACM Multimedia Conference, pp. 978–987 (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yao, B., Jiang, X., Khosla, A., Lin, A.L., Guibas, L., Fei-Fei, L.: Human action recognition by learning bases of action attributes and parts. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Chung Cheng UniversityChiayiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations