Modern Globalization: Global Technological and Economic Transformations in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

  • Julia Zinkina
  • David Christian
  • Leonid Grinin
  • Ilya Ilyin
  • Alexey Andreev
  • Ivan Aleshkovski
  • Sergey Shulgin
  • Andrey Korotayev
Part of the World-Systems Evolution and Global Futures book series (WSEGF)


The nineteenth century was a major watershed in the Big History storyline in general and in the history of globalization in particular. This watershed is related to the modern Technological Revolution that brought profound changes to nearly all spheres of human life. In this chapter, we will touch upon some of the changes that were most relevant to globalization and/or evolved into truly global processes that changed humanity. These include the Industrial Revolution, the changed patterns of global technological dynamics (the emergence of modern technological paradigms) and global economic development (the appearance of global economic cycles and global crises, as well as the impact of some particular breakthrough innovations in transport (railways, steamships) and information transmission (the telegraph). New technologies formed new material networks, which gradually spanned the whole world, leading global connectivity to a totally new level. These newly emerged networks were filled with new types of content, both material (e.g., bulk agricultural goods) and non-material (European-style modernity itself). The acceleration of technological development and increases in global connectivity greatly contributed to the World System core countries’ successful escape from the Malthusian trap. They also played an important role in the start of the global demographic transition, which encompassed the World System core countries in the nineteenth century.


  1. Allen, R. C. (2009). The British industrial revolution in global perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berend, I. T. (2013). An economic history of nineteenth-century Europe. Diversity and industrialization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Biraben, J. N. (1979). Essai sur l’Évolution du Nombre des Hommes. Population (French edition), 34(1), 13–25.Google Scholar
  4. Biraben, J. N. (1991). Pasteur, pasteurization, and medicine. In R. Schofield, D. Reher, & A. Bideau (Eds.), The decline of mortality in Europe (pp. 220–232). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bogart, E. L. (1942). Economic history of Europe 1760–1939. London: Longmans, Green and Co.Google Scholar
  6. Borodkin, L. I., & Konovalova, A. V. (2010). Russian stock market in the early 20th century: Factors of exchange rate dynamics. Saint-Petersburg: Aleteyya. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  7. Bourdelais, P. (1991). Cholera: A victory for medicine? In R. Schofield, D. Reher, & A. Bideau (Eds.), The decline of mortality in Europe (pp. 118–130). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  8. Broadberry, S., Campbell, B. M. S., Klein, A., Overton, M., & van Leeuwen, B. (2015). British economic growth, 1270–1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Burnett, J. (1991). Housing and the decline of mortality. In R. Schofield, D. Reher, & A. Bideau (Eds.), The decline of mortality in Europe (pp. 158–176). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  10. Carswell, J. (1960). The south sea bubble. London: Cresset Press.Google Scholar
  11. Chandler, T. (1987). Four thousand years of urban growth: An historical census. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chesnais, J. K. (1992). The demographic transition: Stages, patterns, and economic implications. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chilosi, D., & Federico, G. (2015). Early globalizations: The integration of Asia in the world economy, 1800–1938. Explorations in Economic History, 57, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christian, D. (2004). Maps of time: An introduction to big history. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Christian, D. (2008). Big history: The big bang, life on earth, and the rise of humanity. Chantilly: The Teaching Company.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, G. (2004). The price history of english agriculture, 1209–1914. Research in Economic History, 22, 41–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark, G. (2007). A farewell to alms: A brief economic history of the world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Coale, A. J., & Watkins, S. C. (Eds.). (1986). The decline of fertility in Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cohen, H. F. (2004). Inside Newcomen’s fire engine, or the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern world. History of Technology, 25, 112–132.Google Scholar
  20. Cowles, V. (1960). The great swindle: The story of the South Sea Bubble. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  21. Crafts, N. F. R. (1985). British economic growth during the industrial revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  22. De Vries, J. (2008). The industrious revolution: Consumer behavior and the household economy, 1650 to the present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Vries, J., & van der Woude, A. (1997). The first modern economy: Success, failure, and perseverance of the Dutch economy, 1500–1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Durand, J. D. (1977). Historical estimates of world population: An evaluation. Population and Development Review, 3(3), 255–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldstone, J. A. (1991). Revolution and rebellion in the early modern world. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2010). Global crisis in retrospective: A short history of upswings and crises. From Lycurgus to Alan Greenspan. Moscow: Librokom/URSS. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  27. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2015). Great divergence and great convergence: A global perspective. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grinin, L., Korotayev, A., & Tausch, A. (2016). Economic cycles, crises, and the global periphery. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grinin, L. E., Grinin, A. L., & Korotayev, A. V. (2017). Forthcoming Kondratieff wave, Cybernetic Revolution, and global ageing. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 115, 52–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hall, A. R. (1980). Scientific method and the progress of techniques. In E. E. Rich & C. H. Wilson (Eds.), The Cambridge economic history of Europe. Vol. IV: The economy of expanding Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (pp. 96–154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Harley, C. K. (1980). Transportation, the world wheat trade, and the Kuznets Cycle, 1850–1913. Explorations in Economic History, 17(3), 218–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Headrick, D. R. (1991). Technology: A world history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Heijdra, M. (1998). The socio-economic development of rural china during the Ming. In D. Twitchett & F. W. Mote (Eds.), The Cambridge history of China. Vol. 8, part 2: The Ming dynasty, 1368–1644 (pp. 417–578). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hicks, J. R. (1969). A theory of economic history. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hoag, C. (2006). The Atlantic telegraph cable and capital market information flows. Journal of Economic History, 66(2), 342–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hodge, J. E. (1984). The role of the telegraph in the consolidation and expansion of the argentine republic. The Americas, 41(1), 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huurdeman, A. A. (2003). The worldwide history of telecommunications. Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Juglar, C. (1862). Des Crises commerciales et leur retour periodique en France, en Angleterre, et aux Etats-Unis. Paris: Guillaumin.Google Scholar
  39. Juglar, C. (1889). Des Crises commerciales et leur retour periodique en France, en Angleterre, et aux Etats-Unis (2nd ed.). Paris: Alean.Google Scholar
  40. Kapitsa, S. P. (1999). How many people have lived, are living, and will live on the earth. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  41. Komlos, J. (1985). Stature and nutrition in the Habsburg monarchy: The standard of living and economic development in the eighteenth century. American Historical Review, 90(5), 1149–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Komlos, J. (Ed.). (1994). Stature, living standards, and economic development: Essays in anthropometric history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Komlos, J. (1998). The new world’s contribution to food consumption during the industrial revolution. Journal of European Economic History, 27(1), 67–82.Google Scholar
  44. Komlos, J. (2009). Anthropometric history: An overview of a quarter century of research. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 67(4), 341–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Komlos, J., & Baur, M. (2004). From the tallest to (one of) the fattest: The enigmatic fate of the American population in the 20th century. Economics and Human Biology, 2(1), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Komlos, J., & Carlson, L. (2014). The anthropometric history of native Americans, c. 1820–1890. In C. Hanes & S. Wolcott (Eds.), Research in economic history (Vol. 30, pp. 135–161). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kondratieff, N. D. (1926). Die langen Wellen der Konjunktur. Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, 56(3), 573–609.Google Scholar
  48. Kondratieff, N. D. (1935). The long waves in economic life. Review of Economic Statistics, 17(6), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kondratieff, N. D. (1998). In W. Samuels, N. Makasheva, V. Barnett (Eds.), The works of Nikolai D. Kondratiev (4 vols). London: Pickering and Chatto.Google Scholar
  50. Landes, D. S. (1997). The unbound Prometheus: Technological change and industrial development in Western Europe from 1750 to the present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Lechman, E. (2018). The diffusion of information and communication technologies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Lesthaeghe, R. (1980). On the social control of human reproduction. Population and Development Review, 6(4), 527–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Livi-Bacci, M. (2012). A concise history of world population (5th ed.). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Lucas, A. R. (2005). Industrial milling in the ancient and medieval worlds. A survey of the evidence for an industrial revolution in medieval Europe. Technology and Culture, 46(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maddison, A. (2010). World population, GDP and per capita GDP, A.D. 1–2008. Accessed January 21, 2017, from
  56. Mandel, E. (1980). Long waves of capitalist development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Mantou, P. (1937[1906]). The industrial revolution of the 18th century in England. Moscow: Sotsecgiz. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  58. Martland, S. J. (2014). Standardizing the state while integrating the frontier: The Chilean telegraph system in the Araucanía, 1870–1900. History and Technology, 30(4), 283–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McEvedy, C., & Jones, R. (1978). Atlas of world population history. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  60. McKeown, T. (1976). The modern rise of population. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  61. McNeill, W. H. (1976). Plagues and peoples. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  62. McNeill, J. R., & McNeill, W. H. (2003). The human web: A bird’s-eye view of world history. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  63. Mironov, B. N. (1999). New approaches to old problems: The well-being of the population of Russia from 1821 to 1910 as measured by physical stature. Slavic Review, 58, 1): 1–1):26.Google Scholar
  64. Mironov, B. N. (2009). What does the human stature say: Opportunities, current state, and perspectives of historical anthropometry for understanding the dynamics of historical process. In G. Malinetskiy & A. Korotayev (Eds.), Problems of mathematical history (pp. 180–195). Moscow: URSS. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  65. Modelski, G. (2003). World cities:-3000 to 2000 (p. 2000). Washington, DC: FAROS.Google Scholar
  66. Nef, J. U. (1987). Mining and metallurgy in medieval civilization. In M. M. Postan & E. Miller (Eds.), The Cambridge economic history of Europe. Vol. II: Trade and industry in the middle ages (pp. 693–762). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Ormrod, D. (2003). The rise of commercial empires: England and the Netherlands in the age of mercantilism, 1650–1770. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Oslin, G. P. (1992). The story of telecommunications. Macon: Mercer University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Overton, M. (1996). Agricultural revolution in England: The transformation of the agrarian economy 1500–1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Overton, M., Whittle, J., Dean, D., & Hann, A. (2004). Production and consumption in English households, 1600–1750. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Parker, G. (2013). Global crisis: War, climate change, and catastrophe in the seventeenth century. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Pomeranz, K. (2000). The great divergence: China, Europe, and the making of the modern world economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Prados de la Escosura, L. (2004). Introduction: Was British industrialization exceptional? In L. Prados de la Escosura (Ed.), Exceptionalism and industrialization: Britain and its European rivals, 1688–1815 (pp. 1–14). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rostow, W. W. (1975). Kondratieff, Schumpeter and Kuznets: Trend periods revisited. Journal of Economic History, 25(4), 719–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rounge, V. F. (2006). History of design, science, and technics: Book 1. Moscow: Arkhitektura-S. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  76. Samuelson, P. A., & Nordhaus, W. D. (2005). Economics (18th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  77. Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  78. Sheeran, P., & Spain, A. (2004). The international political economy of investment bubbles. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  79. Shemyakin, I. N. (Ed.). (1978). Economic history of the USSR and foreign countries. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  80. Smil, V. (1994). Energy in world history. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  81. Solymar, L. (1999). Getting the message: A history of communications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Tognotti, E. (2013). Lessons from the history of quarantine, from plague to influenza A. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 254–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tortella, G. (2010). The origins of the twenty-first century. An essay on contemporary social and economic history. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Tseitlin, Y. A. (1940). Essays on the history of textile machinery. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  85. UN Population Division. (2016). United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division Database. Accessed January 21, 2017, from
  86. Vallin, J. (1991). Mortality in Europe from 1720 to 1914: Long-term trends and changes in patterns by age and sex. In R. Schofield, D. Reher, & A. Bideau (Eds.), The decline of mortality in Europe (pp. 38–67). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  87. Virt, M. (1877). History of trade crises in Europe and America. Saint-Petersburg: Znaniye. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  88. Vishnevskiy, A. G. (2005). The demographic revolution (2nd ed.). Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  89. Wallerstein, I. (1980). The Modern World-system, Vol. II: Mercantilism and the consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600–1750. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  90. Watkins, S. C. (1981). Regional patterns of nuptiality in Europe, 1870–1960. Population Studies, 35(2), 199–215.Google Scholar
  91. Wolmar, C. (2011). Blood, iron, and gold: How the railroads transformed the world. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Zinkina
    • 1
  • David Christian
    • 2
  • Leonid Grinin
    • 3
  • Ilya Ilyin
    • 4
  • Alexey Andreev
    • 4
  • Ivan Aleshkovski
    • 5
  • Sergey Shulgin
    • 1
  • Andrey Korotayev
    • 3
  1. 1.Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public AdministrationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Higher School of EconomicsNational Research UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Faculty of Global StudiesMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations