Advertisement

‘Protection and Promotion of BiH’s Citizens’ Interests Abroad’: Foreign Policy Relations with Diaspora

  • Dženeta KarabegovićEmail author
  • Jasmin Hasić
Chapter
Part of the New Perspectives on South-East Europe book series (NPSE)

Abstract

In this chapter, we build on diaspora governance literature by examining Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (BiH) attempts to manage the relationship with its diaspora and the development of relevant foreign policy tools within different state-level institutions. We examine this development and general trends from the perspective of state policy, with a particular focus on the foreign policy aspects of institutions’ engagement with diaspora. We focus on official state policies but acknowledge that throughout the last two decades, there have also been non-state- and entity-level attempts to engage with different subsections of the diaspora population, including engagement by political parties in an effort to ensure higher diaspora voter turnout. However, these have been limited and without many demonstrable results. We provide a background on the Bosnian diaspora and contextualize the importance of the homeland—diaspora relationship over time. Ultimately, we examine how there is an increased focus on building stronger relationships toward the diaspora with a particular recognition of this as a foreign policy goal.

References

  1. Adamson, F. B. (2006). Crossing borders: International migration and national security. International Security, 31(1), 165–199.Google Scholar
  2. Agency for Statistics of BiH. (2016). Census of population, households and dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013 final results. http://www.popis2013.ba/popis2013/doc/Popis2013prvoIzdanje.pdf
  3. Alonso, A., D., & Mylonas, H. (2017). The microfoundations of diaspora politics: Unpacking the state and disaggregating the diaspora. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–19.Google Scholar
  4. Ancien D., Boyle M., & Kitchin R. (2009). Exploring diaspora strategies: An international comparison. NUI Maynooth Workshop Report. http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/2053/1/RK_Exploring_Diaspora_Strategies_International_Comparison.pdf
  5. Bauböck, R. (2005). Expansive citizenship—Voting beyond territory and membership. PS: Political Science & Politics, 38(4), 683–687.Google Scholar
  6. Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (2014). Annual report. http://www.cbbh.ba/content/archive/36?lang=en
  7. Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (2015). Annual report. http://www.cbbh.ba/content/archive/36?lang=en
  8. Colic-Peisker, V. (2005). “At least you”re the right colour’: Identity and social inclusion of Bosnian Refugees in Australia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(4), 615–638.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830500109720.Google Scholar
  9. Coughlan, R. (2011). Transnationalism in the Bosnian diaspora in America. In M. Valenta & S. Ramet (Eds.), The Bosnian diaspora: Integration in transnational communities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Burlington, VT.Google Scholar
  10. Coughlan, R., & Owens-Manley, J. (2006). Bosnian refugees in America: New communities, new cultures. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Directorate for Economic Planning. (2015). Strategic framework for BiH for the period from 2015 to 2018. http://www.dep.gov.ba/naslovna/DEP%20Strateski%20okvir%20za%20BiH.pdf
  12. Efendic, A. (2016). Emigration intentions in a post-conflict environment: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Post-Communist Economies, 28(3), 335–352.Google Scholar
  13. Efendic, A., Babic, B., & Rebmann, A. (2014). Diaspora and development, Embassy of Switzerland in Bosnia and Herzegovina. http://www.efsa.unsa.ba/~adnan.efendic/materijali/Efendic%20et%20al%202014.pdf
  14. Gamlen, A., Cummings, M. E., & Vaaler, P. M. (2017). Explaining the rise of diaspora institutions. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–25.Google Scholar
  15. Haider, H. (2008). (Re)imagining coexistence: Striving for sustainable return, reintegration and reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 3(1), 91–113.Google Scholar
  16. Halilovich, H. (2011). (Re-)konstrukcija zavičajnih identitetita u bh. dijaspori: translokalne zajednice u Australiji, SAD-u i Austriji. Monash University Melbourne.Google Scholar
  17. Halilovich, H. (2013). Places of pain: Forced displacement, popular memory, and trans-local identities in Bosnian war-torn communities. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  18. Halilovich, H., Hasić, J., Karabegović, D., Karamehić-Muratović, A., & Oruc, N. (2018). Mapping the Bosnian-Herzegovinian diaspora (BiH migrants in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America): Utilizing the Socio-Economic Potential of the Diaspora for Development of BiH. Sarajevo: International Organization for Migration.Google Scholar
  19. Hasić, J. (2017). Involvement of diasporas in peace-building processes – A comparative analysis of views and attitudes towards the Bosnian diaspora as an external peace-building factor in the country. PhD dissertation. Université libre de Bruxelles/Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli di Roma.Google Scholar
  20. Hasić, J. (2018). Post-conflict cooperation in multi-ethnic local communities of Bosnia and Herzegovina: A qualitative comparative analysis of Diaspora’s role. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, 13(2), 31–46.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15423166.2018.1470024.Google Scholar
  21. IOM and IASCI. (2010). Maximizing the development impact of migration-related financial flows and investment to Bosnia and Herzegovina (p. 164). Geneva. https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/iasci_bosnia_herzegovina_eng_final.pdf
  22. Iseni, B., Ruedin, D., Bader, D., & Efionayi-Mader, D. (2014). The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Switzerland. Bern: Federal Office for Migration (FOM), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).Google Scholar
  23. Karabegović, D. (2014). “Što Te Nema?”: Transnational cultural production in the diaspora in response to the Srebrenica Genocide. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 20(4), 455–475.Google Scholar
  24. Karabegović, D. (2016). Bosnia abroad: Transnational diaspora mobilization. PhD dissertation. University of Warwick.Google Scholar
  25. Kupiszewski, M. (2009). Labor migration in Southeast Europe: A review of the literature and a look at transversal issues. Südosteuropa, 57(4), 425–451.Google Scholar
  26. Koinova, M. (2017). Beyond statist paradigms: Sociospatial positionality and diaspora mobilization in international relations. International Studies Review, 19(4), 597–621.Google Scholar
  27. Koinova, M., & Tsourapas, G. (2018). How do countries of origin engage migrants and diasporas? Multiple actors and comparative perspectives. International Political Science Review, 39(3), 311–321.Google Scholar
  28. Klekowski von Koppenfels, A. (2017). The disinterested state: Negative diasporic policy as an expression of state inclusion and national exclusion. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–18.Google Scholar
  29. Mencutek, Z. S., & Baser, B. (2018). Mobilizing diasporas: Insights from Turkey’s attempts to reach Turkish citizens abroad. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 20(1), 86–105.Google Scholar
  30. MHRR BiH. (2016). Bosnia and Herzegovina migration profile for the year 2015. http://msb.gov.ba/PDF/MIGRATION%20PROFILE_2015_ENG.pdf
  31. Nenadic, M. (2005). Comparative analysis on access to rights of refugees and displaced persons. Sarajevo: Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees. http://www.mhrr.gov.ba/PDF/UporednaAnalizaEngleski.pdf
  32. Oruc, N., Jackson, I., & Pugh, G. (2018). The effects of remittances on education in a post-conflict society: Evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 1–14.Google Scholar
  33. Pedroza, L., & Palop-García, P. (2017). Diaspora policies in comparison: An application of the Emigrant Policies Index (EMIX) for the Latin American and Caribbean region. Political Geography, 60, 165–178.Google Scholar
  34. Shain, Y., & Barth, A. (2003). Diasporas and international relations theory. International Organization, 57(03), 449–479.Google Scholar
  35. Toal, G., & Dahlman, C. T. (2011). Bosnia remade: Ethnic cleansing and its reversal. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Valenta, M. (2009). Selective networking as identity project: The social integration of first generation immigrants in Norway. Journal of International Migration and Integration / Revue de L’integration et de La Migration Internationale, 10(2), 177–195.Google Scholar
  37. Valenta, M., & Ramet, S. P. (Eds.). (2011). The Bosnian diaspora: Integration in transnational communities. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  38. Valenta, M., & Strabac, Z. (2013). The dynamics of Bosnian Refugee migrations in the 1990s, current migration trends and future prospects. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 32(3), 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1093/rsq/hdt013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Department of International Relations and European StudiesInternational Burch UniversitySarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina

Personalised recommendations