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Nanomaterials and Plant Potential: An Overview

  • Azamal Husen
  • Muhammad Iqbal
Chapter

Abstract

In the recent years, nanotechnology has come up as a cutting-edge field of science and technology with the potential to revolutionize the technological advances in industry, biomedicine and agriculture. Nanomaterials (NMs) can be synthesized using chemical, physical and biological methods. Of these, the biomaterial-based synthesis is not only cost-effective and eco-friendly but also free from the dependence on high pressure, energy, temperature and lethal chemicals. Nanoparticles (NPs) are crystalline or amorphous, having an extremely small size in the range of 1–100 nm. These particles are derived mainly from carbons, metals, ceramics, lipids, semiconductors and polymeric materials. In the biological methods of NP fabrication, plants as well as microbes (certain algae, fungi, bacteria and viruses) are used as the reducing and/or capping agents. The size, morphology and stability of NMs depend on the method of preparation, nature of solvent, mixing ratio, concentration, pH and temperature of reaction mixture and the strength of reducing agent. These particles are then characterized by using various techniques including UV-vis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements, among others. The NMs thus produced have shown significant application in various sectors including those of agri-food (carbon, fullerene, Ag, ZnO), cosmetics (TiO2, ZnO, fullerene, Fe2O3 Cu, Ag, Au), catalysts (NiO, Pt, Pd) lubricants and fuel additives (CeO2, Pt, MoS3), paints and coatings (TiO2, SiO2, Ag, CdSe), agrochemicals (SiO2), food packaging (Ag, TiO2, ZnO, TiN, nanoclay), nanomedicine and nanocarriers (Au, Ag, Fe, magnetic materials). Recent studies have also shown that the plant-mediated fabricated NPs are more efficient in attaching pharmacologically active substances or residues and hence are therapeutically more effective than those produced by physico-chemical means. This chapter highlights the current advances in the development of nanotechnology, with special emphasis on NP synthesis, factors affecting this process, plant-NP interaction and the future prospects of plant-based nanomaterials.

Keywords

Metal NPs Metal oxide NPs Carbon Fullerene Biosynthesis Plant potential 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azamal Husen
    • 1
  • Muhammad Iqbal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyCollege of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of GondarGondarEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceJamia Hamdard (Deemed University)New DelhiIndia

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