Biomechanics and Occlusion in Immediate Loading

  • Rubén Agustín-Panadero
  • Ana Orozco-Varo
  • Pablo Domínguez-Cardoso
  • Juan Carlos Bernabeu-Mira
  • David Soto-Peñaloza
  • David Peñarrocha-OltraEmail author


In this chapter, biomechanical concepts as tension, types of forces, and static and dynamic loads in oral implantology are explained. Also, biomechanical factors as type of bone, implant design, switching platform, connection type, crown-implant ratio, and passive fit are exposed. So, it is important to know keys for biomechanical control and occlusal pattern. The lowering of tensions is one of our aims when planning cases for immediate loading, since we know the complications they can cause. It is therefore necessary to reduce the incident forces or increase the surface upon which they fall. Increasing the number of implants is the most effective method for improving surface area and reducing stress and for shortening the duration of symptoms and the risk of overhangs. Implant macrogeometry could improve the transmission of these forces, and in immediate loading protocols, this may even prove more significant than an increase in width. The number and depth of the threads exert an influence, since they determine an increased implant-bone contact surface and favor primary stability. Internal connections offer greater stability at the implant-prosthesis interface, reducing the possibility of micro-movements during loading. The absence of passive adjustment of the prosthesis can be associated with mechanical complications such as loosening or fracture of the screws and fracture of the superstructure, though its association to biological complications such as marginal bone loss and the loss of osseointegration cannot be confirmed. Narrow occlusal surfaces reduce the generated stress.


Biomecanichs Occlusion Forces Implant 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rubén Agustín-Panadero
    • 1
  • Ana Orozco-Varo
    • 2
  • Pablo Domínguez-Cardoso
    • 2
  • Juan Carlos Bernabeu-Mira
    • 3
  • David Soto-Peñaloza
    • 3
  • David Peñarrocha-Oltra
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Prosthodontics and Occlusion Unit, Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Prosthetic Unit, Department of Stomatology, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain
  3. 3.Oral Surgery Unit, Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain

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