Advertisement

Toward a New Knowledge Policy

  • Cristiano AntonelliEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The identification of the increasing returns triggered by the limited exhaustibility of knowledge and of the central role of the interindustrial knowledge externalities triggered by the dissemination of knowledge across product markets calls for a new knowledge policy aimed at reducing the exclusivity of the intellectual property regime with the introduction of two-layers patents according to the activity of perspective users and new public subsidies based on high levels of additionality.

Keywords

Knowledge policy Knowledge increasing returns User-specific patents R&D subsidies Additionality requirements 

References

  1. Antonelli, C. (2007). Knowledge as an essential facility. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 17, 451–471.Google Scholar
  2. Antonelli, C. (2015a). The dynamics of knowledge governance. In C. Antonelli & A. Link (Eds.), Handbook on the economics of knowledge (pp. 232–262). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Antonelli, C. (2015b). Towards non exclusive intellectual property rights. In C. Antonelli & A. Link (Eds.), Handbook on the economics of knowledge (pp. 209–231). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Antonelli, C. (2018). Knowledge properties and economic policy: A new look. Science and Public Policy, 45(2), 151–158.Google Scholar
  5. Antonelli, C. (2019a). Knowledge exhaustibility R&D subsidies and the additionality constraint (Università di Torino & BRICK Working Papers). Collegio Carlo Alberto.Google Scholar
  6. Antonelli, C. (2019b). A reappraisal of the Arrovian postulate and the intellectual property regime: User-specific patents (Università di Torino & BRICK Working Papers). Collegio Carlo Alberto.Google Scholar
  7. Antonelli, C., & David, P. A. (Eds.). (2015). The economics of knowledge and the knowledge driven economy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Becker, B. (2015). Public R&D policies and private R&D investment: A survey of the empirical evidence. Journal of Economic Surveys, 29(5), 917–942.Google Scholar
  9. Bielig, A. (2015). Intellectual property and economic development: Empirical evidence in Germany for 1999–2009. European Journal of Law and Economics, 39, 607–622.Google Scholar
  10. Bloom, N., Griffith, R., & Van Reenen, J. (2002). Do R&D tax credits work? Evidence from a panel of countries 1979–1997. Journal of Public Economics, 85(1), 1–31.Google Scholar
  11. Bloom, N., Schankerman, M., & Van Reenen, J. (2013). Identifying technology spillovers and product market rivalry. Econometrica, 81(4), 1347–1393.Google Scholar
  12. Boldrin, M., & Levine, D. K. (2002). The case against intellectual property rights. American Economic Review, 92, 209–212. Google Scholar
  13. Boldrin, M., & Levine, D. K. (2013). The case against patents. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27, 1–22.Google Scholar
  14. Bresnahan, T. F., & Trajtenberg, M. (1995). General purpose technologies: Engines of growth. Journal of Econometrics, 65(1), 83–108.Google Scholar
  15. Busom, I. (2000). An empirical evaluation of the effects of R&D subsidies. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 9(2), 111–148.Google Scholar
  16. Clarysse, B., Wright, M., & Mustar, P. (2009). Behavioral additionality of R&D subsidies: A learning perspective. Research Policy, 38, 1517–1533.Google Scholar
  17. Cremers, K., et al. (2017). Patent litigation in Europe. European Journal of Law and Economics, 44(1), 1–44.Google Scholar
  18. Czarnitzki, D., & Lopes-Bento, C. (2014). Innovation subsidies: Does the funding source matter for innovation intensity and performance? Empirical evidence from Germany. Industry and Innovation, 21(5), 380–409.Google Scholar
  19. D’Andria, D., Pontikakis, D., & Skonieczna, A. (2018). Towards a European R&D incentive? An assessment of R&D provisions under a common corporate tax base. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 27(5&6), 531–550.Google Scholar
  20. David, P. A., & Hall, B. H. (2006). Property and the pursuit of knowledge: IPR issues affecting scientific research. Research Policy, 35, 767–771.Google Scholar
  21. David, P. A., Hall, H. B., & Toole, A. A. (2000). Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence. Research Policy, 29, 497–529.Google Scholar
  22. European Union. (2014). Framework for state aid for research and development and innovation (2014/C 198/01).Google Scholar
  23. Geroski, P. A. (1995). Markets for technology: Knowledge, innovation and appropriability. In P. Stoneman (Ed.), Handbook of the economics of innovation and technological change (pp. 90–131). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Gilbert, R., & Shapiro, C. (1990). Optimal patent length and breadth. RAND Journal of Economics, 21(1), 106–112.Google Scholar
  25. Green, J. R., & Scotchmer, S. (1995). On the division of profit in sequential innovation. RAND Journal of Economics, 26(1), 20–33.Google Scholar
  26. Guellec, D., & van Pottelsberghe de La Potterie, B. (2003). The impact of public R&D expenditure on business R&D. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 12(3), 225–243.Google Scholar
  27. Hall, B. H., & Van Reenen, J. (2000). How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence. Research Policy, 29, 449–469.Google Scholar
  28. Heller, M. A., & Eisenberg, R. S. (1998). Can patents deter innovation? The anticommons in biomedical research. Science, 280, 698–701.Google Scholar
  29. Henningsen, M. S., Hægeland, T., & Møen, J. (2015). Estimating the additionality of R&D subsidies using proposal evaluation data for research intentions. Journal of Technology Transfer, 40(2), 227–251.Google Scholar
  30. Huergo, E., Trenado, M., & Ubierna, A. (2016). The impact of public support on firms propensity to engage in R&D: Spanish experience. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 113(Part B), 206–219.Google Scholar
  31. Klette, T. J., Møen, J., & Griliches, Z. (2000). Do subsidies to commercial R&D reduce market failures? Microeconometric evaluation studies. Research Policy, 29(4–5), 471–495.Google Scholar
  32. Laitner, J., & Stolyarov, D. (2013). Derivative ideas and the value of intangible assets. International Economic Review, 54(1), 59–95.Google Scholar
  33. Marino, M., Lhuillery, S., Parrotta, P., & Sala, D. (2016). Additionality or crowding out? An overall evaluation of public subsidy on private R&D expenditure. Research Policy, 45(9), 1715–1730.Google Scholar
  34. Mosel, M. (2011). Competition imitation, and R&D productivity in a growth model with industry-specific patent protection. Review of Law and Economics, 7(2), 601–652.Google Scholar
  35. O’Donoghue, T., Scotchmer, S., & Thisse, J. F. (1998). Patent breadth patent life and the pace of technological progress. Journal of Economics and Management, 7(1), 1–32.Google Scholar
  36. Orsi, F., & Coriat, B. (2006). The new role and status of intellectual property rights in contemporary capitalism. Competition and Change, 10(2), 162–179.Google Scholar
  37. Pagano, U. (2014). The crisis of intellectual monopoly capitalism. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 38(6), 1409–1429.Google Scholar
  38. Pagano, U., & Rossi, M. A. (2009). The crash of the knowledge economy. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 33(4), 665–683.Google Scholar
  39. Polanki, A. (2007). Is the general public licence a rational choice? Journal of Industrial Economics, 55(4), 691–714.Google Scholar
  40. Reichman, J. (2000). ‘Of green tulips and legal kudzu’: Repackaging rights in subpatentable invention. Vanderbilt Law Review, 53, 17–43.Google Scholar
  41. Reichman, J., & Maskus, K. (Eds.). (2005). International public goods and transfer of technology under a globalized intellectual property regime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Scotchmer, S. (1999). On the optimality of the patent renewal system. RAND Journal of Economics, 30(2), 181–196.Google Scholar
  43. Scotchmer, S. (2004). Innovation and incentives. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  44. Scotchmer, S. (2010). Openess open source and the veil of ignorance. American Economic Review, 100, 165–171.Google Scholar
  45. Sterlacchini, A. (2016). Patent oppositions and opposition outcomes: Evidence from domestic appliance companies. European Journal of Law and Economics, 41, 183–203.Google Scholar
  46. Stiglitz, J. E. (2008). Economic foundations of intellectual property rights. Duke Law Journal, 57, 1693–1724.Google Scholar
  47. Stiglitz, J. E. (2017). Towards a broader view of competition policy (Roosevelt Institute Working Paper).Google Scholar
  48. Zúñiga-Vicente, J. A., Alonso-Borrego, C., Forcadell, F. J., & Galán, J. I. (2014). Assessing the effect of public subsidies on firm R&D investment. Journal of Economic Surveys, 28(1), 36–67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento Di Economia E Statistica Cognetti De Martiis, Collegio Carlo AlbertoUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations