• Nourollah ZarrinabadiEmail author
  • Saeed Ketabi
  • Mansoor Tavakoli
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)


Motivation is an important aspect of any human endeavour. It is generally believed that, if motivated, individuals will invest more time, energy, and persistence to reach their goals (Atkinson & Raynor, 1974; Elliot, 2008). It is also a common sense notion among people that one has to be motivated in order to achieve goals, something which has been extensively ratified by a voluminous bulk of research in different disciplines (De Volder & Lens, 1982; Dweck, 1985; Elliot, 2008).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nourollah Zarrinabadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saeed Ketabi
    • 1
  • Mansoor Tavakoli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EnglishUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  2. 2.University of IsfahanIsfahanIran

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