Advertisement

An Approach for Detecting and Resolving Indirect Normative Conflicts in Multi-agent Systems

  • Jéssica S. Santos
  • Mairon Belchior
  • Viviane T. Silva
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11352)

Abstract

In Multi-agent systems (MAS), norms can be adopt as a strategy to regulate and guide the behavior of software agents and avoid that unexpected actions occur in the system. In order to guarantee that the MAS runs properly, the set of norms must be free of conflict. Two norms are in conflict when the agent automatically violates a norm when adopts the other one. In this paper, we present an approach for detecting and resolving indirect conflicts among norms that regulate a multi-agent system. Indirect conflicts are those who arise among norms whose elements being regulated are not the same but are related. Our approach uses a lexical database and a domain ontology to detect indirect conflicts and the conflicts detected are resolved by manipulating the activation/deactivation conditions of the conflicting norms taking into account the relationships identified among the elements of the conflicting norms.

Keywords

Multi-agent systems Norms Conflict detection Conflict resolution Ontology and WordNet 

References

  1. 1.
    Aphale, M.S., Norman, T.J., Şensoy, M.: Goal-directed policy conflict detection and prioritisation. In: Aldewereld, H., Sichman, J.S. (eds.) COIN 2012. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 7756, pp. 87–104. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-37756-3_6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Şensoy, M., Norman, T.J., Vasconcelos, W.W., Sycara, K.: OWL-POLAR: a framework for semantic policy representation and reasoning. Web Semant. Sci. Serv. Agents World Wide Web 12–13, 148–160 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fenech, S., Pace, G.J., Schneider, G.: Detection of conflicts in electronic contracts. In: NWPT 2008, p. 34 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gaertner, D., Garcia-Camino, A., Noriega, P., Rodriguez-Aguilar, J.A., Vasconcelos, W.W.: Distributed norm management in regulated multiagent systems. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2007, pp. 90:1–90:8. ACM, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giannikis, G.K., Daskalopulu, A.: Normative conflicts in electronic contracts. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 10(2), 247–267 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Günay, A., Yolum, P.: Engineering conflict-free multiagent systems. In: First International Workshop on Engineering Multiagent Systems (EMAS) (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ide, N., Véronis, J.: Introduction to the special issue on word sense disambiguation: the state of the art. Comput. Linguist. 24(1), 2–40 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kollingbaum, M.J., Norman, T.J., Preece, A., Sleeman, D.: Norm conflicts and inconsistencies in virtual organisations. In: Noriega, P., et al. (eds.) COIN -2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4386, pp. 245–258. Springer, Heidelberg (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74459-7_16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mihalcea, R.: Knowledge-based methods for WSD. In: Agirre, E., Edmonds, P. (eds.) Word Sense Disambiguation. Text, Speech and Language Technology, vol. 33, pp. 107–131. Springer, Dordrecht (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4809-8_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller, G.A.: WordNet: a lexical database for English. Commun. ACM 38(11), 39–41 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    dos Santos Neto, B.F., da Silva, V.T., de Lucena, C.J.P.: An architectural model for autonomous normative agents. In: Barros, L.N., Finger, M., Pozo, A.T., Gimenénez-Lugo, G.A., Castilho, M. (eds.) SBIA 2012. LNCS (LNAI), pp. 152–161. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34459-6_16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    dos Santos Neto, B.F., da Silva, V.T., de Lucena, C.J.P.: Developing goal-oriented normative agents: the NBDI architecture. In: Filipe, J., Fred, A. (eds.) ICAART 2011. CCIS, vol. 271, pp. 176–191. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29966-7_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Santos, J.S., Silva, V.T.: Identifying domain-independent normative indirect conflicts. In: 2016 IEEE 28th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI), 2016, San Jose, p. 536 (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Santos, J.S., Silva, V.T.: A novel tool for detecting indirect normative conflicts in multi-agent systems. In: 10th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, 2018, Funchal. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, p. 70 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Santos, J.S., Zahn, J.O., Silvestre, E.A., Silva, V.T., Vasconcelos, W.W.: Detection and resolution of normative conflicts in multi-agent systems: a literature survey. Auton. Agents Multi-Agent Syst. 1–47 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/S10458-017-9362-ZCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vasconcelos, W.W., Kollingbaum, M.J., Norman, T.J.: Normative conflict resolution in multiagent systems. Auton. Agents Multi-Agent Syst. 19(2), 124–152 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vasconcelos, W.W., García-Camino, A., Gaertner, D., Rodríguez-Aguilar, J.A., Noriega, P.: Distributed norm management for multi-agent systems. Expert. Syst. Appl. 39(5), 5990–5999 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zahn, J.O.: Um Mecanismo de Verificação de Conflitos Normativos Indiretos. Master’s thesis, Instituto de Computação - Universidade Federal Fluminense (IC/UFF), Niterói, Brasil (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jéssica S. Santos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mairon Belchior
    • 1
  • Viviane T. Silva
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.IBM ResearchRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations