Independent Fan Culture

  • Chris PorterEmail author
Part of the Football Research in an Enlarged Europe book series (FREE)


Chapter 4 critically explores the more independent and organised responses within English football fandom to the significant transformations of English football in the last decades of the twentieth century. This takes in the emergence and growth in popularity of the football fanzine, as well as the related advent of supporter campaign organisations, both at club level and nationally. The class character of these cultural formations is a key consideration, as is the wider economic and political environment that contributed to its subsequent development into and within the supporter ownership and fan democracy ‘movement’.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

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