Macro- and Microeconomics and Social Marketing
This Chapter describes the macro- and microeconomic context of development, highlighting the interrelated factors, institutions, and policies at different levels, which are related to the community. Thereupon, an assessment is given of the macroeconomic approaches in the struggle against poverty, followed by the microeconomic development for a better livelihood. As is also the case with the broader conceptualisation of poverty, it becomes clear from the increasing trends of utility-related research in micro-economics that the livelihood of the community consists of more than income alone, but also on access to better health and education, and on the optimisation of local knowledge and wisdom. Embarking on the general theory of economics, the view that individuals will maximise utility, that firms will maximise profit and that states will maximise welfare, which is conceptualised as more than just an aggregation of individual utilities of all citizens together, the supporters of the new approaches of Integrated Microfinance Management (IMM) and Integrated Community-Managed Development (ICMD) are advised to continue collecting data and case studies to accumulate evidence-based case studies of all the parties and stakeholders involved in the efficacy of their novel approach towards poverty reduction and sustainable community development.
- Armendariz de Aghion, B., & Morduch, J. (2010). The economics of microfinance. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Bateman, M. (2010). Why doesn’t microfinance work? The destructive rise of local neoliberalism. London; New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Joesron, T. S., & Nikolaidis, A. (2012). Macro- & microeconomics and financial sector development. In Slikkerveer, L. J. (Ed.), Handbook for lecturers and tutors of the new master course on integrated microfinance management for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Indonesia (IMM). Leiden/Bandung: LEAD/UL/UNPAD/MAICH/GEMA PKM.Google Scholar
- Kamenica, E. (2012). Behavioral economics and psychology of incentives. Annual Review of Economics 4(1), 427–452. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-conomics-080511–110909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. M. (2008). Principles of marketing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., & Zhao, J. (2013). Poverty impedes cognitive function. Science, 341(6149), 976–980. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1238041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mankiw, N. G. (2015). Principles of economics (7th ed.). Stamford CONN: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
- Olson, M. (2002). The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups (20th ed.) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. http://www.amazon.com/The-Logic-Collective-Action-printing/dp/0674537513 http://homes.ieu.edu.tr/ibagdadi/INT230/MancurOlson-LogicofCollectiveAction.pdf.
- Oxford Dictionaries. (2015). Behavioural economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/behavioural-economics.
- Porro, R., Lopez-Feldman, A., & Vela-Alvarado, J. W. (2015). Forest use and agriculture in Ucayali, Peru: Livelihood strategies, poverty and wealth in an Amazon frontier. Forest Policy and Economics, 51, 47–56. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1389934114002299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered. London: Blond & Briggs Ltd.Google Scholar
- Servon, L. J. (2013). The high cost for the poor of using a bank. The New Yorker. 9 October 2013.Google Scholar
- Smith, A. (1776). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell.Google Scholar
- Spears, D. (2011). Economic decision-making in poverty depletes behavioral control. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 11(1). http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bejeap.2011.11.issue-1/1935-1682.2973/1935-1682.2973.xml.
- South Asia Council for the Community and Children in Crisis (SCA-CCC). (2014). Rural Micro-Economic Development. http://www.sac-ccc.org/services-view/rural-micro-economic-development.
- Tesfaye, Y., Roos, A., Campbell, B. M., & Bohlin, F. (2011). Livelihood strategies and the role of forest income in participatory-managed forests of Dodola area in the Bale highlands, southern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics, 13(4), 258–265. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1389934111000190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yunus, M., Moingeon, B., & Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010). Building social business models: Lessons from the Grameen experience. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 308–325. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0024630109001290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar