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Global Climate Change Adaptation Measures in Cities and Urban Areas

  • Mohsen M. Aboulnaga
  • Amr F. Elwan
  • Mohamed R. Elsharouny
Chapter

Abstract

Climate change (CC) is inevitable! The need for urgent response to climate change impacts is momentarily taking place to mitigate such impacts of severe events on the most vulnerability sectors, whether on current risks or future risks. Nonetheless, these responses are not at the same momentum with the severity of CC risks. Throughout history, civilizations have been associated with climate. People and societies have adjusted and coped with climate at varying degrees of success. Drought, for example, has been at least partly responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Scientifically, the idea of adaptation emerged in 1991 by the US National Academy of Sciences. Climate change adaptation (CCA) measures reduce the adverse effects of climate change risks by taking appropriate actions to prevent or minimize the damage resulting in exposure to hazards or taking advantage of opportunities that increase resilience to climate change and sustainability. This chapter identifies adaptation measures in cities, including urban and rural areas that aid in preventing, moderating or adapting to the consequences of CC risks. These measures are discussed specifically on ten sectors (flood prone areas, urban areas, infrastructure and activities in the city such as fresh water, energy, public health, agriculture, forest, biodiversity and economy). Also, the share of Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Latin America from these measures will be identified. Finally, the chapter explains the role and significance of CCA measures in enhancing and/or upgrading cities and buildings’ retrofitting.

Keywords

Climate change Adaptation measures Urban areas Infrastructure City resilience 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohsen M. Aboulnaga
    • 1
  • Amr F. Elwan
    • 2
  • Mohamed R. Elsharouny
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Architecture, Faculty of EngineeringCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringMilitary Technical CollegeCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Architect & Out-sourced Project CoordinatorAfrican Export Import Bank (Afreximbank)CairoEgypt

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