Preparation and Characterization of Antibacterial Sustainable Nanocomposites

  • T. C. MokhenaEmail author
  • M. J. Mochane
  • T. H. Mokhothu
  • A. MtibeEmail author
  • C. A. Tshifularo
  • T. S. Motsoeneng


Nanoparticles show high toxicity towards various pathogenic microbes, however, the control over their release and/or release rate has been the major subject in research. Over the past decade’s research has escalated on the use of the polymeric material as the host to hold the nanoparticles in order to control their release rate. Biopolymers, owing to their unique properties such as biodegradability, renewability, and recyclability have been used as host matrices for various nanoparticles. Different processing techniques such as melt compounding and solution casting were employed to fabricate polymer nanocomposites. In this chapter, we reviewed the preparation and characterization of sustainable antimicrobial nanocomposites, the strategies to enhance their antibacterial activity as well as future prospects of these interesting materials. We also highlight the preparation of different antibacterial nanoparticles and recent developments.


Biopolymer Nanocomposites Nanoparticles Preparation Characterization 


  1. 1.
    Abdel Rahim K, Mahmoud SY, Ali AM et al (2017) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer. Saudi J Biol Sci. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agarwal H, Venkat Kumar S, Rajeshkumar S (2017) A review on green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles—An eco-friendly approach. Resour Technol. Scholar
  3. 3.
    An X, Ma H, Liu B, Wang J (2013) Graphene oxide reinforced polylactic acid/polyurethane antibacterial composites. J Nanomater. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ana MD, Angel LD (2014) ZnO-reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate- co -3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites with antimicrobial function for food packaging. J Mol Sci, Int. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agustin YE, Padmawijara (2017) Effect of glycerol and zinc oxide addition on antibacterial activity of biodegradable bioplastics from chitosan-kepok banana peel starch. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Augustine R, Malik HN, Singhal DK, et al (2014) Electrospun polycaprolactone/ZnO nanocomposite membranes as biomaterials with antibacterial and cell adhesion properties. J Polym Res.
  7. 7.
    Baheri B, Shahverdi M, Rezakazemi M et al (2015) Performance of PVA/NaA Mixed matrix membrane for removal of water from ethylene glycol solutions by pervaporation. Chem Eng Commun 202:316–321. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bayer IS (2017) Thermomechanical properties of polylactic review for biomedical applications. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Botlhoko OJ, Ramontja J, Ray SS (2017) Thermally shocked graphene oxide-containing biocomposite for thermal management applications. RSC Adv 7:33751–33756. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castro-Mayorga J, Fabra M, Cabedo L, Lagaron J (2016) On the use of the electrospinning coating technique to produce antimicrobial polyhydroxyalkanoate materials containing in situ-stabilized silver nanoparticles. Nanomaterials. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Castro Mayorga JL, Fabra Rovira MJ, Cabedo Mas L et al (2018) Antimicrobial nanocomposites and electrospun coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and copper oxide nanoparticles for active packaging and coating applications. J Appl Polym Sci. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chandra S, Kumar A, Tomar PK (2014) Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by reducing agent. J Saudi Chem Soc 18:149–153. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen H, Wang B, Gao D et al (2013) Broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes to human gut bacteria. 2735–2746. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chu Z, Zhao T, Li L et al (2017) Characterization of antimicrobial poly (lactic acid)/nano-composite films with silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Materials (Basel). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chung IM, Rahuman AA, Marimuthu S et al (2017) Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaves extract and their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. 18–24.
  16. 16.
    De Azeredo HMC (2009) Nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Food Res. Int. Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Azeredo HMC (2013) Antimicrobial nanostructures in food packaging. Trends Food Sci Technol Scholar
  18. 18.
    Din MI, Arshad F, Hussain Z, Mukhtar M (2017) Green adeptness in the synthesis and stabilization of copper nanoparticles : catalytic, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities.
  19. 19.
    El-ghany NAA (2017) Antimicrobial activity of new carboxymethyl chitosan–carbon nanotube biocomposites and their swell ability in different pH media. J Carbohydr Chem 0:1–14. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Espinoza-go H, Alonso-nu G, Sua J (2017) A green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using native cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents. J Saudi Chem Soc 341–348. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Geetha MS, Nagabhushana H, Shivananjaiah HN (2016) Green mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using Euphorbia Jatropa latex as reducing agent. J Sci Adv Mater Devices. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gopinath V, Priyadarshini S, Loke MF et al (2017) Biogenic synthesis, characterization of antibacterial silver nanoparticles and its cell cytotoxicity. Arab J Chem. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gopiraman M, Jatoi AW, Hiromichi S et al (2016) Silver coated anionic cellulose nanofiber composites for an efficient antimicrobial activity. Carbohydr Polym. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gunalan S, Sivaraj R, Rajendran V (2012) Green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hasan SS, Singh S, Parikh RY, Dharne MS (2008) Bacterial synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles bacterial synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huang KS, Yang CH, Huang SL et al (2016) Recent advances in antimicrobial polymers: a mini-review. Int J Mol Sci 17(9):1578. Scholar
  27. 27.
    José De Andrade C, Maria De Andrade L, Mendes MA, Oller Do Nascimento CA (2017) An overview on the production of microbial copper nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi and algae. Glob J Res EngGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Judith P, Espitia P (2012) Zinc oxide nanoparticles : synthesis, antimicrobial activity and food packaging applications. Food Bioprocess Technol 1447–1464. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kang S, Pinault M, Pfefferle LD et al (2007) Single-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit strong antimicrobial activity. Langmuir 23(17):8670–8673. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khan A, Rashid A, Younas R, Chong R (2015) A chemical reduction approach to the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. Int Nano Lett. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li SM, Jia N, Ma MG, et al (2011) Cellulose-silver nanocomposites: Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization, their thermal stability, and antimicrobial property. Carbohydr Polym. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li W, Zhang C, Chi H et al (2017) Development of antimicrobial packaging film made from poly(lactic acid) incorporating titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles. Molecules. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li X, Xiao Y, Bergeret A, et al (2014) Preparation of polylactide/graphene composites from liquid-phase exfoliated graphite sheets. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ma P, Jiang L, Yu M et al (2016) Green antibacterial nanocomposites from Poly (lactide)/Poly (butylene adipate -co-terephthalate)/nanocrystal cellulose-silver nanohybridsGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Martynková GS, Valášková M (2014) Antimicrobial nanocomposites based on natural modified materials: a review of carbons and clays. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mary G, Bajpai SK, Chand N (2009) Copper (II) Ions and copper nanoparticles-loaded chemically modified cotton cellulose fibers with fair antibacterial properties.
  37. 37.
    Matinise N, Fuku XG, Kaviyarasu K et al (2017) Applied Surface Science ZnO nanoparticles via Moringa oleifera green synthesis: Physical properties & mechanism of formation. Appl Surf Sci 406:339–347. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mendoza G, Regiel-Futyra A, Andreu V et al (2017) Bactericidal effect of gold-chitosan nanocomposites in coculture models of pathogenic bacteria and human macrophages. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:17693–17701. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mochane MJ, Luyt AS (2015) Synergistic effect of expanded graphite, diammonium phosphate and Cloisite 15A on flame retardant properties of EVA and EVA/wax phase-change blends. J Mater Sci 50:3485–3494. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mochane MJ, Luyt AS (2015) The effect of expanded graphite on the thermal stability, latent heat, and flammability properties of EVA/wax phase change blends. Polym Eng Sci 55:1255–1262. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mokhena TC, Jacobs NV, Luyt AS (2018) Nanofibrous alginate membrane coated with cellulose nanowhiskers for water purification. Cellulose 25. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mokhena TC, Jacobs V, Luyt AS (2015) A review on electrospun bio-based polymers for water treatment. Express Polym Lett 9. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mokhena TC, Luyt AS (2017) Development of multifunctional nano/ultrafiltration membrane based on a chitosan thin film on alginate electrospun nanofibres. J Clean Prod 156:. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mokhena TC, Luyt AS (2017) Electrospun alginate nanofibres impregnated with silver nanoparticles: preparation, morphology and antibacterial properties. Carbohydr Polym 165. Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mondal D, Bhowmick B, Mollick MMR et al (2014) Antimicrobial activity and biodegradation behavior of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Palza H (2015) Antimicrobial polymers with metal nanoparticles. Int J Mol, SciCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Palza H, Quijada R, Delgado K (2015) Antimicrobial polymer composites with copper micro- and nanoparticles: effect of particle size and polymer matrix. J Bioact Compat Polym. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Phogat N, Khan SA, Shankar S, et al (2016) Fate of inorganic nanoparticles in agriculture. Adv. Mater. LettGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pinto RJB, Marques PAAP, Neto CP, et al (2009) Antibacterial activity of nanocomposites of silver and bacterial or vegetable cellulosic fibers. Acta Biomater. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Prabhu YT, Rao KV, Sai VS, Pavani T (2017) ORIGINAL ARTICLE A facile biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles: a micro-structural and antibacterial activity investigation. J Saudi Chem Soc 21:180–185. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rapacz-Kmita A, Pierchała MK, Tomas-Trybuś A et al (2017) The wettability, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of polylactide/montmorillonite nanocomposite films. Acta Bioeng Biomech.
  52. 52.
    Review CNA, Gonçalves C (2017) Poly (lactic acid) composites containing. 1–37. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rezakazemi M, Dashti A, Riasat Harami H et al (2018) Fouling-resistant membranes for water reuse. Environ Chem Lett 1–49. Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rezakazemi M, Ebadi Amooghin A, Montazer-Rahmati MM et al (2014) State-of-the-art membrane based CO < inf > 2</inf > separation using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs): an overview on current status and future directions. Prog Polym Sci 39:817–861. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rezakazemi M, Khajeh A, Mesbah M (2017) Membrane filtration of wastewater from gas and oil production. Environ Chem Lett 1–22. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rezakazemi M, Mohammadi T (2013) Gas sorption in H < inf > 2</inf > -selective mixed matrix membranes: experimental and neural network modeling. Int J Hydrogen Energy 38:14035–14041. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rezakazemi M, Razavi S, Mohammadi T, Nazari AG (2011) Simulation and determination of optimum conditions of pervaporative dehydration of isopropanol process using synthesized PVA-APTEOS/TEOS nanocomposite membranes by means of expert systems. J Memb Sci 379:224–232. Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rezakazemi M, Sadrzadeh M, Matsuura T (2018) Thermally stable polymers for advanced high-performance gas separation membranes. Prog Energy Combust Sci 66:1–41. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rezakazemi M, Sadrzadeh M, Mohammadi T (2017b) Separation via pervaporation techniques through polymeric membranesGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rezakazemi M, Sadrzadeh M, Mohammadi T, Matsuura T (2017) Methods for the preparation of organic-inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cellsGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rezakazemi M, Shahidi K, Mohammadi T (2012) Sorption properties of hydrogen-selective PDMS/zeolite 4A mixed matrix membrane. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37:17275–17284. Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rezakazemi M, Shahidi K, Mohammadi T (2012) Hydrogen separation and purification using crosslinkable PDMS/zeolite A nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37:14576–14589. Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rezakazemi M, Shahidi K, Mohammadi T (2015) Synthetic PDMS composite membranes for pervaporation dehydration of ethanol. Desalin Water Treat 54:1542–1549. Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rezakazemi M, Shahverdi M, Shirazian S et al (2011) CFD simulation of water removal from water/ethylene glycol mixtures by pervaporation. Chem Eng J 168:60–67. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rezakazemi M, Vatani A, Mohammadi T (2015) Synergistic interactions between POSS and fumed silica and their effect on the properties of crosslinked PDMS nanocomposite membranes. RSC Adv 5:82460–82470. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rezakazemi M, Vatani A, Mohammadi T (2016) Synthesis and gas transport properties of crosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanocomposite membranes using octatrimethylsiloxy POSS nanoparticles. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 30:10–18. Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rhim J-W, Hong S-K, Park H-M, N.g PKW (2006) Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Based Nanocomposite Films with Antimicrobial Activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 16, 5814-5822. Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rhim JW, Park HM, Ha CS (2013) Bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Prog Polym Sci. Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rostamizadeh M, Rezakazemi M, Shahidi K, Mohammadi T (2013) Gas permeation through H2-selective mixed matrix membranes: experimental and neural network modeling. Int J Hydrogen Energy 38:1128–1135. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sadeghi A, Nazem H, Rezakazemi M, Shirazian S (2018) Predictive construction of phase diagram of ternary solutions containing polymer/solvent/nonsolvent using modified Flory-Huggins model. J Mol Liq 263:282–287. Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sadrzadeh M, Rezakazemi M, Mohammadi T (2017) Fundamentals and measurement techniques for gas transport in polymersGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Laudenslager MJ, Schiffman JD, Schauer CL (2008) Carboxymethyl chitosan as a matrix material for platinum, gold, and silver nanoparticles. 2682–2685. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sengupta R, Bhattacharya M, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhowmick AK (2011) A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites. Prog Polym Sci 36:638–670. Scholar
  74. 74.
    Satyvaldiev AS, Zhasnakunov ZK, Omurzak E, Doolotkeldieva TD, Bobusheva ST, Orozmatova GT, Kelgenbaeva Z (2018) Copper nanoparticles : synthesis and biological activity. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shahverdi M, Baheri B, Rezakazemi M et al (2013) Pervaporation study of ethylene glycol dehydration through synthesized (PVA-4A)/polypropylene mixed matrix composite membranes. Polym Eng Sci 53:1487–1493. Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shankar S, Rhim J (2016) LWT—food science and technology tocopherol-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and preparation of antimicrobial pbat/silver nanoparticles composite films. LWT - Food Sci Technol 72:149–156. Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shankar S, Wang LF, Rhim JW (2016) Preparations and characterization of alginate/silver composite films: effect of types of silver particles. Carbohydr Polym. Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shih CM, Shieh YT, Twu YK (2009) Preparation of gold nanopowders and nanoparticles using chitosan suspensions. Carbohydr Polym 78:309–315. Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shittu KO, Bankole MT, Abdulkareem AS et al (2017) Application of gold nanoparticles for improved drug efficiencyGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sothornvit R, Rhim JW, Hong SI (2009) Effect of nano-clay type on the physical and antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate/clay composite films. J Food Eng. Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tsou CH, Yao WH, Lu YC, et al (2017) Antibacterial property and cytotoxicity of a poly(lactic acid)/nanosilver-doped multiwall carbon nanotube nanocomposite. Polymers (Basel) 9. Scholar
  82. 82.
    Vasile C, Râpă M, Ștefan M et al (2017) New PLA/ ZnO: Cu/ Ag bionanocomposites for food packaging. 11:531–544Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Venkatesan R, Rajeswari N (2017) TiO2 nanoparticles/poly(butylene adipate‐co‐terephthalate) bionanocomposite films for packaging applications. Scholar
  84. 84.
    Venkatesan R, Rajeswari N, Tamilselvi A (2018) Antimicrobial, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties of bio-based poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/Ag2O nanocomposite films for packaging application. Scholar
  85. 85.
    Venkatesan R, Rajeswari N (2016) ZnO/PBAT nanocomposite films : investigation on the mechanical and biological activity for food packaging. Scholar
  86. 86.
    Vimbela GV, Ngo SM, Fraze C, Yang L, David A Stout DA (2017) Antibacterial properties and toxicity from metallic nanomaterials. Int J Nanomedicine 12:3941–3965. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vivekanandhan S, Christensen L, Misra M, Kumar Mohanty A (2012) Green process for impregnation of silver nanoparticles into microcrystalline cellulose and their antimicrobial bionanocomposite films. J Biomater Nanobiotechnol. Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wang X, Du Y, Luo J, et al (2009) A novel biopolymer/rectorite nanocomposite with antimicrobial activity. Carbohydr Polym. Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wu CS (2009) Antibacterial and static dissipating composites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon N Y 47:3091–3098. Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wu D, Cheng Y, Feng S, et al (2013) Crystallization behavior of polylactide/graphene composites crystallization behavior of polylactide/graphene composites. Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yan X, Li F, Di Hu K et al (2017) Nacre-mimic reinforced Ag@reduced graphene oxide-sodium alginate composite film for wound healing. Sci Rep.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. Mokhena
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. J. Mochane
    • 3
  • T. H. Mokhothu
    • 4
  • A. Mtibe
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. A. Tshifularo
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. S. Motsoeneng
    • 5
  1. 1.CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites Competence Area, Nonwovens and Composites Research GroupPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Life SciencesCentral University of TechnologyBloemfonteinSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryDurban University of TechnologyDurbanSouth Africa
  5. 5.Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of South Africa (UNISA)RoodepoortSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations