Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Hemicelluloses Based Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

  • Xinwen PengEmail author
  • Fan Du
  • Linxin Zhong


Hemicelluloses are widely available natural polysaccharides that present abundant functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl, and acetyl groups) on their backbones to act as an ideal candidate for chemical/physical functionalization. This review summarizes the synthesis and characterization of hemicelluloses-based polymer composites including products from different modifications (zero-dimensional), particles (zero-dimensional), films (two-dimensional), and gels (three-dimensional), aiming at improving the functional properties of hemicelluloses-based materials such as mechanical strength, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability and more hydrophobicity. The hemicelluloses-based products are more preferable for specific use in heavy metal removal, dye adsorption, drug delivery and release, tissue engineering, biodegradable packaging and so forth. The perspectives of hemicelluloses in future composites and applications are also outlined.


Hemicelluloses Polymer Composite Modification Particle Film Gel 



Ethylene vinyl alcohol


Polyvinylidene chloride




Anhydroglucose units


O-acetyl galactoglucomannans


N, N-dimethylformamide


N, N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride


Dimethyl sulfoxide/tetrahydrofuran


4-dimethylamino pyridine






Degree of substitution


Methane sulfonic acid


1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride


Ionic liquid


Lauroyl chloride


Lauroylated hemicelluloses


HEXAFLUOROISOPROPANOL/1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3-hexafluoro-2-propanol


N, N’-carbonyldiimidazole


Single-electron-transfer mediated living radical polymerization


Thiolated O-acetyl galactoglucomannan


Polyethylene glycol monomethacrylate


2, 3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride


Quaternized hemicelluloses




Sodium hydride


Benzyl galactoglucomannan


Tetrabutylammonium iodide


3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride


Glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride


[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride




2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium (HPMA), 1, 2-dimethoxyethane


Pre-hydrolysis liquor


Glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride


[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride




Wood hydrolysate




N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylamino)propyl carbodiimide hydroxide/N-hydroxysuccinimide




260 purpurogallin unit/mg solid


4-(4, 6-dimethoxy-1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride


Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition






1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate


1, 5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate


1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride






N, N, N’, N’, N’’-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine










Methyl acrylate


Acrylamide/acrylic amide


Methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride


Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping


Methyl methacrylate


N-isopropyl acrylamide


Glycidyl methacrylate




Galactomannan (GM), Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation


2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl




Limit of detection


Silver nanoparticles


Polymeric magnetic microparticles


Magnetic microparticles


Carboxymethyl functionalized hemicellulose/carboxymethyl hemicellulose

Pd NPs

Palladium nanoparticles


Xylan-type hemicelluloses


Carboxymethyl Konjac glucomannan




Bovine serum albumin


Water vapor permeability


Oxygen permeability


Polyvinyl alcohol


Hydrogenated palm kernel oil


Hydrophilic-lipophilic balances


Low-density polyethylene


Dynamic mechanical analysis


Chitin nanowhiskers


Bleached hemicelluloses


Acetylated bleached hemicelluloses


Nanocrystalline cellulose


Cationically modified NCC




Glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride




Nanofibrillated cellulose


Microfibrillated cellulose


Cellulose nanofibers


Carbon nanotube


Κ-carrageenan/locust bean


Gum arabic


Stearyl acrylate


Stearyl methacrylate


Electron beam


Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)


Trifluoroacetic anhydride


Polyethylene terephthalate


3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl sulfonic acid


(S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride


3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl-trimethylammonium chloride


Roughness value


Equilibrium swelling ratio


2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate


2-[(1- imidazolyl)formyloxy]ethyl methacrylate


Enzyme β-mannanase


Methacrylated AcGGM


Maleic anhydride-modified M-AcGGM


Acrylic acid


Citric acid


Sodium hypophosphite




N, N’-methylenebis-acrylamide


2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone/N-methyl pyrrolidone


Acylated xylan


Acylated hemicellulose


Lower critical solution temperature


Ammonium persulfate/N, N, N′, N′-tetramethyl-ethane-1, 2-diamine


[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride




Glow discharge electrolysis plasma


Magnetic field-responsive hemicelluloses-based hydrogel


Swelling ratios


Electrically conductive hydrogels


Electrically conductive hemicellulose hydrogel


Aniline pentamer


Carboxylated AcGGM


Aniline tetramer


Stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels


Carboxymethyl chitosan-hemicellulose


Carboxymethyl chitosan-hemicellulose network


Sodium dodecyl sulfate


Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid


Dialdehyde hemicelluloses


Cellulose nanofibrils


Nanocrystalline cellulose


Nanofibrillated cellulose


Interpenetrating polymer networks


Methacrylated carboxymethylcellulose


Softwood hemicellulose hydrolysate




Sodium persulphate


Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)


Itaconic acid




Graphene oxide


Polymerized acrylamide


Multiwall carbon nanotube


Methylene blue


Polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina

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