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Thermal Behaviour and Crystallization of Green Biocomposites

  • Vasile Cristian GrigorasEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The thermal behaviour of the green composites (GCs) was an interesting issue discussed in many studies of recent years. In the foreground, unquestionable is the role played by the interface between natural fibers or cellulose nanoparticles and the polymer matrix, which also is most presented in this chapter. There were presented the effects at interfaces on thermal behaviour of the different polymer matrix, most of them biodegradable, that was reinforced using various methods with natural fillers (fibers or cellulose nanoparticles) isolated and extracted from different bioresources. Before starts to present literature results, the most common thermal analytical techniques were reviewed. Thermal behaviour of the most representative from the GCs class was presented in this chapter. Because interfaces of GCs show a greater impact on thermal transitions, firstly were presented results related to the stable temperature range when the important thermal transitions like glass transition, melting or/and (cold) crystallization occurs. The modifications occurred on glass transition, melting and crystallization temperatures or on the crystallinity index were discussed as a function of their content in the GCs or by chemical treatment applied (e.g. hydrolyzation, alkalinization, silanization) or surface treatments on fillers. The role of fillers reinforced in a polymer matrix, which affects morphology development at interface region was highlighted, too. Then, in the next chapter subsection were presented representative works for a discussed domain that emphasize once again the interface effects on the thermal degradation temperatures or on the mechanism of the thermal degradation as well. Also, fibers content or applied chemical treatment showed a major effect on thermal degradation as will be seen next. Like a general conclusion on thermal behavior of the GCs, three important key factors in the preparing of a GCs were highlighted: the natural filler dimensions (high aspect ratio), a good dispersion (to prevent heterogeneity), and the last, but maybe most important, is the chemical treatment applied on the surface. If these conditions were fulfilled, a biomaterial presenting good thermal properties automatically will show good mechanical performances, too.

Keywords

Green composites Glass transition Melting Crystallization Thermal stability 

List of Abbreviations

APTES

3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

Ac-CNC

Acetate cellulose nanocrystals

ACNC

Acetylated cellulose nanocrystals

ATBC

Acetyltributyl citrate ATBC

A-sisal

Alkali treated sisal fibers

BC

Bacterial cellulose

BCN

Bacterial nanocellulose

BF

Bamboo fibers

BPU

Biobased polyurethane

CA

Citric acid CA

CE

Cellulose

CF

Cellulose fibers

ChNC

Chitin nanocrystals

CO

Cotton

CNC

Cellulose nanocrystals

CNCSD

Conventional spray dried cellulose nanocrystals

CNCFD

Freeze dried cellulose nanocrystals

C18-g-CNC

Cellulose nanocrystals grafted with long alkyl chain (C18)

CNF

Cellulose nanofibers

CNC-g-PLLA

Poly(l-lactide)-grafted-cellulose nanocrystals

CNW

Cellulose nanowhiskers

Cp

Heat capacity

ΔCp

Heat capacity step (at glass transition)

ΔEa

Activation energy

DDMSiCl

N-dodecyldimethylchlorosilane

DMA

Dynamic mechanical analysis

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

DTG

Derivative thermogravimetry

DTA

Differential thermal analysis

ENR

Epoxidized natural rubber

EVA

Ethylene vinyl alcohol

GC

Green composite

GLU

Glutaraldehyde

Gly

Glycerol

GTA

Glycerol triacetate

GMA

Glycidyl methacrylate

GPS

3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane

dH/dt

Enthalpy variation in time

HAlk

Alkalinized hemp fibers

HCE

Hydrolysed cellulose

HF

Hemp fibers

HW

Hard wood

ΔH

Enthalpy

ΔHm

Melting enthalpy

ΔHc

Crystallization enthalpy

KF

Kenaf fibers

Kraft

Bleached kraft softwood

LA-CNC

Lactate cellulose nanocrystals

LDI

Lysine-based diisocyanate

LDPE

Low density polyethylene

MA

Maleic anhidride

MBC

Modified bamboo cellulose

MC

Microcrystalline cellulose

MFC

Microfibrilated cellulose

MRSF

Modified rice straw fibers

NBSK

Black spruce and northern bleached softwood kraft

ODI

Octadecyl isocyanate

PBA

Poly(butyl acrylate)

PBAT

Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)

PBI

4-phenylbutyl isocyanate)

PBSu

Poly(butylene succinate)

PCL

Poly(ε-caprolactone)

PFA

Polyfurfuril alchohol

PHB

Poly(hydroxy butyrate)

PHBV

Poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-valerate)

PL

Plastified lignin

PLA

Poly(lactic acid)

PLA-g-CNC

Poly(lactic acid)-grafted-cellulose nanocrystals

PLA-g-MA

Poly(lactic acid-grafted-maleic anhydride)

PLLA

Poly(l-lactide)

PLM

Polarizing light microscopy

PPC

Poly(propylene carbonate)

PP

Poly(propylene)

PP-g-MA

Poly(propylene-grafted-maleic anhydride)

PU

Polyurethane

PVC

Poly(vinyl chloride)

PVA

Poly(vinyl alchohol)

PVAc

Poly(vinyl acetate)

RF

Ramie fibers

RH

Rice husk

RS

Rice straw

SEBS

Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene

SEBS-g-MA

Maleic anhydride-grafted-styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene

SCF

Standard size cellulose fibers

SPA

Anhydride plasticized soy protein

S-sisal

Sylane treated sisal fibers

SW

Softwood

TAC

Triacetate citrate TAC

TDI

Toluene isocyanate TDI

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

Tc

Crystallization temperature

Tc(onset)

Crystallization onset temperature

Tcc

Cold crystallization temperature

Tg

Glass transition

Tm

Melting temperature

\(\text{T}_{\text{m}}{^{\text{o}}}\)

Equilibrium melting point

Tmax

Temperature of maximum decomposition rate

TPS

Thermoplastic starch

ΔS

Entropy

U-sisal

Untreated sisal fibers

χc

Crystallinity index

σe

Fold surface free energy

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular ChemistryIassyRomania

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