Advertisement

Smart Materials, Magnetic Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposites for Sustainable Water Purification

  • Janardhan Reddy Koduru
  • Rama Rao KarriEmail author
  • N. M. Mubarak
Chapter

Abstract

Magnetic separation, one of the potential methods for the purification of toxic pollutant contaminated water, has been found to be an alternative technique for the removal of water pollutants that effectively compares with the conventional methods of treatment. Among the synthetic magnetic adsorbents, magnetic graphene oxide based nanocomposites (MGOs) have been widely used in the removal of metal pollutants and dyes from aqueous solution, and are currently attracting much attention. This chapter reviews the status and approaches of the properties of graphene and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites, in view of their utilization for the adsorption removal of pollutants (heavy metals, radioactive elements, organic dyes, and other pollutants) for sustainable water purification. It also reviews the primary characterization instruments required for the evaluation of structural, chemical and physical functionalities of synthesized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites. It first discusses pollutants and their toxic effects, and the necessity of preparation of MGOs, and then discusses in brief MGOs preparation strategies, characterizations, and applications for sustainable water purification.

Keywords

Magnetic graphene oxide Nanocomposites Water treatment Heavy metals Radionuclides and dyes Pesticides and herbicides 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP) (2017R1C1B5016656) of the Korea Government, Seoul, Korea.

References

  1. 1.
    Alvand M, Shemirani F (2016) Fabrication of Fe3O4@graphene oxide core-shell nanospheres for ferrofluid-based dispersive solid phase extraction as exemplified for Cd(II) as a model analyte. Microchim Acta 183:1749–1757.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-016-1805-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Azimi A, Azari A, Rezakazemi M, Ansarpour M (2017) Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters: a review. ChemBioEng Rev 4:37–59.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cben.201600010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balandin AA (2011) Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Nat Mater 10:569.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat3064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN (2008) Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett 8:902–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berger C et al (2004) Ultrathin epitaxial graphite:  2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics. J Phys Chem B 108:19912–19916.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp040650fCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhunia P, Kim G, Baik C, Lee H (2012) A strategically designed porous iron–iron oxide matrix on graphene for heavy metal adsorption. Chem Commun 48:9888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bolotin KI et al (2008) Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene. Solid State Commun 146:351–355.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2008.02.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chandra V, Park J, Chun Y, Lee JW, Hwang I-C, Kim KS (2010) Water-dispersible magnetite-reduced graphene oxide composites for arsenic removal. ACS Nano 4:3979–3986.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1008897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen X, Zhou S, Zhang L, You T, Xu F (2016) Adsorption of heavy metals by graphene oxide/cellulose hydrogel prepared from NaOH/urea aqueous solution. Mater 9:582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheng Z, Liao J, He B, Zhang F, Zhang F, Huang X, Zhou L (2015) One-step fabrication of graphene oxide enhanced magnetic composite gel for highly efficient dye adsorption and catalysis. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:1677–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chung C, Kim Y-K, Shin D, Ryoo S-R, Hong BH, Min D-H (2013) Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Acc Chem Res 46:2211–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dasari BL, Nouri JM, Brabazon D, Naher S (2017) Graphene and derivatives—synthesis techniques, properties and their energy applications. Energy 140:766–778.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.08.048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deng J-H, Zhang X-R, Zeng G-M, Gong J-L, Niu Q-Y, Liang J (2013) Simultaneous removal of Cd (II) and ionic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite as an adsorbent. Chem Eng J 226:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deng J-H, Zhang X-R, Zeng G-M, Gong J-L, Niu Q-Y, Liang J (2013) Simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and ionic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite as an adsorbent. Chem Eng J 226:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duru I, Ege D, Kamali AR (2016) Graphene oxides for removal of heavy and precious metals from wastewater. J Mater Sci 51:6097–6116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fan Z, Wang K, Wei T, Yan J, Song L, Shao B (2010) An environmentally friendly and efficient route for the reduction of graphene oxide by aluminum powder. Carbon 48:1686–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gollavelli G, Chang C-C, Ling Y-C (2013) Facile synthesis of smart magnetic graphene for safe drinking water: heavy metal removal and disinfection control. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1:462–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gomez-Navarro C, Burghard M, Kern K (2008) Elastic properties of chemically derived single graphene sheets. Nano Lett 8:2045–2049.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl801384yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hashim N et al (2016) A brief review on recent graphene oxide-based material nanocomposites: synthesis and applications. J Mater Environ Sci 7:3225–3243Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hu X-J et al (2013) Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution using sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide composite. Sep Purif Technol 108:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hur J, Shin J, Yoo J, Seo YS (2015) Competitive adsorption of metals onto magnetic graphene oxide: comparison with other carbonaceous adsorbents. The Sci World J 2015:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/836287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abbas A, Al-Amer AM, Laoui T, Al-Marri MJ, Nasser MS, Khraisheh M, Atieh MA (2016) Heavy metal removal from aqueous solution by advanced carbon nanotubes: critical review of adsorption applications. Sep Purif Technol 157:141–161Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ionita M, Vlăsceanu GM, Watzlawek AA, Voicu SI, Burns JS, Iovu H (2017) Graphene and functionalized graphene: extraordinary prospects for nanobiocomposite materials. Compos B Eng 121:34–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang J-W, Lan J, Wang J-S, Li B (2010) Isotopic effects on the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons: localization mechanism. J Appl Phys 107:054314.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3329541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Karri RR, Sahu JN (2018) Modeling and optimization by particle swarm embedded neural network for adsorption of zinc (II) by palm kernel shell based activated carbon from aqueous environment. J Environ Manage 206:178–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karri RR, Jayakumar N, Sahu J (2017) Modelling of fluidised-bed reactor by differential evolution optimization for phenol removal using coconut shells based activated carbon. J Mol Liq 231:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karri RR, Sahu JN, Jayakumar NS (2017) Optimal isotherm parameters for phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions onto coconut shell based activated carbon: error analysis of linear and non-linear methods. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 80:472–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khurana I, Shaw AK, Bharti, Khurana JM, Rai PK (2018) Batch and dynamic adsorption of Eriochrome Black T from water on magnetic graphene oxide: experimental and theoretical studies. J Environ Chem Eng 6:468–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kou L, Tang C, Guo W, Chen C (2011) Tunable magnetism in strained graphene with topological line defect. ACS Nano 5:1012–1017.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1024175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Krane N (2011) Selected topics in physics: physics of nanoscale carbon. Freie Universität, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee C, Wei X, Li Q, Carpick R, Kysar Jeffrey W, Hone J (2009) Elastic and frictional properties of graphene. Physica Status Solidi (b) 246:2562–2567.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pssb.200982329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee Y-C, Yang J-W (2012) Self-assembled flower-like TiO2 on exfoliated graphite oxide for heavy metal removal. J Ind Eng Chem 18:1178–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li J, Guo S, Zhai Y, Wang E (2009) Nafion–graphene nanocomposite film as enhanced sensing platform for ultrasensitive determination of cadmium. Electrochem Commun 11:1085–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lim JY, Mubarak NM, Abdullah EC, Nizamuddin S, Khalid M, Inamuddin (2018) Recent trends in the synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide based nanomaterials for removal of heavy metals—a review. J Ind Eng Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2018.05.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lingamdinne L, Kim I-S, Ha J-H, Chang Y-Y, Koduru J, Yang J-K (2017) Enhanced adsorption removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) by using nickel ferrite-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite. Metals 7:225  CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lingamdinne LP, Choi Y-L, Kim I-S, Yang J-K, Koduru JR, Chang Y-Y (2017) Preparation and characterization of porous reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite nanocomposite for adsorption removal of radionuclides. J Hazard Mater 326:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lingamdinne LP, Koduru JR, Chang Y-Y, Karri RR (2018) Process optimization and adsorption modeling of Pb(II) on nickel ferrite-reduced graphene oxide nano-composite. J Mol Liq 250:202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lingamdinne LP, Choi Y-L, Kim I-S, Chang Y-Y, Koduru JR, Yang J-K (2016) Porous graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite nanocomposites for the enhanced adsorption removal of arsenic. RSC Adv 6(77):73776–73789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lingamdinne LP, Koduru JR, Choi Y-L, Chang Y-Y, Yang J-K (2016) Studies on removal of Pb(II) and Cr(III) using graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite nano-composite as sorbent. Hydrometallurgy 165:64–72  CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lingamdinne LP, Koduru JR, Roh H, Choi Y-L, Chang Y-Y, Yang J-K (2016) Adsorption removal of Co(II) from waste-water using graphene oxide. Hydrometallurgy 165:90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lingamdinne LP, Roh H, Choi Y-L, Koduru JR, Yang J-K, Chang Y-Y (2015) Influencing factors on sorption of TNT and RDX using rice husk biochar. J Ind Eng Chem 32:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu J, Zhang H-B, Liu Y, Wang Q, Liu Z, Mai Y-W, Yu Z-Z (2017) Magnetic, electrically conductive and lightweight graphene/iron pentacarbonyl porous films enhanced with chitosan for highly efficient broadband electromagnetic interference shielding. Compos Sci Technol 151:71–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.08.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu M, Chen C, Hu J, Wu X, Wang X (2011) Synthesis of magnetite/graphene oxide composite and application for cobalt(ii) removal. J Phys Chem C 115:25234–25240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu M, Wen T, Wu X, Chen C, Hu J, Li J, Wang X (2013) Synthesis of porous Fe3O4 hollow microspheres/graphene oxide composite for Cr(vi) removal. Dalton Trans 42:14710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu P, Yao Z, Zhou J (2015) Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/NiO·4ZnO·4CoO·2Fe2O4 nanocomposites and their excellent microwave absorption properties. Ceram Int 41:13409–13416Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liu, ZJ, Yang, JW, Li, CZ, Li, JX, Jiang, YJ, Dong, YH, Li, YY (2014) Adsorption of Co (II), Ni (II), Pb (II) and U (VI) from aqueous solutions using polyaniline/graphene oxide composites. Korean Chem Eng Res 52(6):781–788. https://doi.org/10.9713/kcer.2014.52.6.781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Maaz K, Karim S, Mumtaz A, Hasanain SK, Liu J, Duan JL (2009) Synthesis and magnetic characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation route. J Magn Magn Mater 321:1838–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mesbah M, Shahsavari S, Soroush E, Rahaei N, Rezakazemi M (2018) Accurate prediction of miscibility of CO2 and supercritical CO2 in ionic liquids using machine learning. J CO2 Utilization 25:99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcou.2018.03.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mokhtari P, Ghaedi M, Dashtian K, Rahimi M, Purkait M (2016) Removal of methyl orange by copper sulfide nanoparticles loaded activated carbon: kinetic and isotherm investigation. J Mol Liq 219:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Muzyka R, Kwoka M, Smędowski Ł, Díez N, Gryglewicz G (2017) Oxidation of graphite by different modified Hummers methods. New Carbon Mater 32:15–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-5805%5b17%5d60102-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Novoselov KS et al (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Novoselov KS, Jiang D, Schedin F, Booth TJ, Khotkevich VV, Morozov SV, Geim AK (2005) Two-dimensional atomic crystals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nupearachchi CN, Mahatantila K, Vithanage M (2017) Application of graphene for decontamination of water implications for sorptive removal. Groundwater Sustain Dev 5:206–215.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2017.06.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Oraby EA, Eksteen JJ (2015) The leaching of gold, silver and their alloys in alkaline glycine–peroxide solutions and their adsorption on carbon. Hydrometallurgy 152:199–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Peng Y, Ji J, Chen D (2015) Ultrasound assisted synthesis of ZnO/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion. Appl Surf Sci 356:762–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pettes MT, Jo I, Yao Z, Shi L (2011) Influence of polymeric residue on the thermal conductivity of suspended bilayer graphene. Nano Lett 11:1195–1200.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl104156yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Phiri J, Gane P, Maloney TC (2017) General overview of graphene: production, properties and application in polymer composites. Mater Sci Eng B 215:9–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2016.10.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ramesha G, Kumara AV, Muralidhara H, Sampath S (2011) Graphene and graphene oxide as effective adsorbents toward anionic and cationic dyes. J Colloid Interface Sci 361:270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Razavi SMR, Rezakazemi M, Albadarin AB, Shirazian S (2016) Simulation of CO2 absorption by solution of ammonium ionic liquid in hollow-fiber contactors. Chem Eng Process Process Intensification 108:27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2016.07.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Reddy DHK, Lee S-M (2013) Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions. Adv Coll Interface Sci 201–202:68–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rezakazemi M, Dashti A, Riasat Harami H, Hajilari N, Inamuddin (2018) Fouling-resistant membranes for water reuse. Environ Chem Lett 1–49.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0717-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rezakazemi M, Ghafarinazari A, Shirazian S, Khoshsima A (2013) Numerical modeling and optimization of wastewater treatment using porous polymeric membranes. Polym Eng Sci 53:1272–1278.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.23375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rezakazemi M, Khajeh A, Mesbah M (2018) Membrane filtration of wastewater from gas and oil production. Environ Chem Lett 16:367–388.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-017-0693-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rezakazemi M, Shirazian S, Ashrafizadeh SN (2012) Simulation of ammonia removal from industrial wastewater streams by means of a hollow-fiber membrane contactor. Desalination 285:383–392.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.10.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rezakazemi M, Zhang Z (2018) 2.29 Desulfurization materials A2. In: Ibrahim D (ed) Comprehensive energy systems. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 944–979.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809597-3.00263-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sanes J, Avilés M-D, Saurín N, Espinosa T, Carrión F-J, Bermúdez M-D (2017) Synergy between graphene and ionic liquid lubricant additives. Tribol Int 116:371–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2017.07.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sarı A, Tuzen M, Soylak M (2007) Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(III) from aqueous solution on Celtek clay. J Hazard Mater 144:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sarkar SK, Raul KK, Pradhan SS, Basu S, Nayak A (2014) Magnetic properties of graphite oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Physica E 64:78–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2014.07.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Saurín N, Sanes J, Bermúdez M-D (2016) New graphene/ionic liquid nanolubricants. Mater Today Proc 3:S227–S232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2016.02.038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Senthilkumar B, Kalai Selvan R, Vinothbabu P, Perelshtein I, Gedanken A (2011) Structural, magnetic, electrical and electrochemical properties of NiFe2O4 synthesized by the molten salt technique. Mater Chem Phys 130:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Seol JH et al (2010) Two-dimensional phonon transport in supported graphene. Science 328:213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sepioni M et al (2010) Limits on intrinsic magnetism in graphene. Phys Rev Lett 105:207205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sharma R, Baik JH, Perera CJ, Strano MS (2010) Anomalously large reactivity of single graphene layers and edges toward electron transfer chemistries. Nano Lett 10:398–405.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl902741xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    She X, Zhang X, Liu J, Li L, Yu X, Huang Z, Shang S (2015) Microwave-assisted synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitors. Mater Res Bull 70:945–950Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shirazian S, Rezakazemi M, Marjani A, Moradi S (2012) Hydrodynamics and mass transfer simulation of wastewater treatment in membrane reactors. Desalination 286:290–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.11.039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sitko R et al (2013) Adsorption of divalent metal ions from aqueous solutions using graphene oxide. Dalton Trans 42:5682–5689.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3DT33097DCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sreeprasad TS, Maliyekkal SM, Lisha KP, Pradeep T (2011) Reduced graphene oxide–metal/metal oxide composites: facile synthesis and application in water purification. J Hazard Mater 186:921–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stankovich S et al (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sun H, Cao L, Lu L (2011) Magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: one step solvothermal synthesis and use as a novel platform for removal of dye pollutants. Nano Res 4:550–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sun L, Wang G, Hao R, Han D, Cao S (2015) Solvothermal fabrication and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Cu2O-reduced graphene oxide composite microspheres for photodegradation of Rhodamine B. Appl Surf Sci 358:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sur UK (2012) Graphene: a rising star on the horizon of materials science. Int J Electrochem 2012: Article ID 237689, 12 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/237689
  82. 82.
    Szabo T, Nánai L, Nesztor D, Barna B, Malina O, Tombácz E (2018) A simple and scalable method for the preparation of magnetite/graphene oxide nanocomposites under mild conditions. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2018:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tangahu BV, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M (2011) A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int J Chem Eng 2011:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tsoukleri G et al (2009) Subjecting a graphene monolayer to tension and compression. Small 5:2397–2402.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.200900802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ugeda MM, Brihuega I, Guinea F, Gómez-Rodríguez JM (2010) Missing atom as a source of carbon magnetism. Phys Rev Lett 104:096804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Urbas K, Aleksandrzak M, Jedrzejczak M, Jedrzejczak M, Rakoczy R, Chen X, Mijowska E (2014) Chemical and magnetic functionalization of graphene oxide as a route to enhance its biocompatibility. Nanoscale Res Lett 9:656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vozmediano MAH, López-Sancho MP, Stauber T, Guinea F (2005) Local defects and ferromagnetism in graphene layers. Phys Rev B 72:155121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wang H et al (2012) Fe nanoparticle-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: one-pot synthesis and their applications in magnetic removal of heavy metal ions. J Mater Chem 22:9230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wang Y, Huang Y, Song Y, Zhang X, Ma Y, Liang J, Chen Y (2009) Room-temperature ferromagnetism of graphene. Nano Lett 9:220–224.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl802810gCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wang Y, Liang S, Chen B, Guo F, Yu S, Tang Y (2013) Synergistic removal of Pb (II), Cd (II) and humic acid by Fe3O4@ mesoporous silica-graphene oxide composites. PLoS One 8:e65634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Xie L et al (2011) Room temperature ferromagnetism in partially hydrogenated epitaxial graphene. Appl Phys Lett 98:193113.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3589970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yang S-T et al (2010) Folding/aggregation of graphene oxide and its application in Cu2+ removal. J Colloid Interface Sci 351:122–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.07.042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Yang Y, Asiri AM, Tang Z, Du D, Lin Y (2013) Graphene based materials for biomedical applications. Mater Today 16:365–373.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2013.09.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Yazyev OV (2008) Magnetism in disordered graphene and irradiated graphite. Phys Rev Lett 101:037203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yazyev OV, Helm L (2007) Defect-induced magnetism in graphene. Phys Rev B 75:125408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yu S, Wang X, Tan X, Wang X (2015) Sorption of radionuclides from aqueous systems onto graphene oxide-based materials: a review. Inorg Chem Front 2:593–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang C, Shao Y, Zhu L, Wang J, Wang J, Guo Y (2017) Acute toxicity, biochemical toxicity and genotoxicity caused by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 51:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhang K, Dwivedi V, Chi C, Wu J (2010) Graphene oxide/ferric hydroxide composites for efficient arsenate removal from drinking water. J Hazard Mater 182:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zhang P, Ma L, Fan F, Zeng Z, Peng C, Loya PE, Liu Z, Gong Y, Zhang J, Zhang X Ajayan PM (2014) Fracture toughness of graphene. Nat Commun 5:3782Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhang W, Shi X, Zhang Y, Gu W, Li B, Xian Y (2013) Synthesis of water-soluble magnetic graphene nanocomposites for recyclable removal of heavy metal ions. J Mater Chem A 1:1745–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhang Y-Y, Pei Q-X, Cheng Y, Zhang Y-W, Zhang X (2017) Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene: the role of chemical functionalization. Comput Mater Sci 137:195–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2017.05.042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zhang Y, Small JP, Pontius WV, Kim P (2005) Fabrication and electric-field-dependent transport measurements of mesoscopic graphite devices. Appl Phys Lett 86:073104.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1862334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zhao G, Li J, Ren X, Chen C, Wang X (2011) Few-layered graphene oxide nanosheets as superior sorbents for heavy metal ion pollution management. Environ Sci Technol 45:10454–10462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhu J, He J, Du X, Lu R, Huang L, Ge X (2011) A facile and flexible process of β-cyclodextrin grafted on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and host–guest inclusion studies. Appl Surf Sci 257:9056–9062Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhu J et al (2012) Magnetic graphene nanoplatelet composites toward arsenic removal. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol 1:M1–M5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhu Y, Murali S, Cai W, Li X, Suk Ji W, Potts Jeffrey R, Ruoff Rodney S (2010) Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater 22:3906–3924.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201001068CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janardhan Reddy Koduru
    • 1
  • Rama Rao Karri
    • 2
    Email author
  • N. M. Mubarak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringKwangwoon UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi BruneiGadongBrunei Darussalam
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceCurtin UniversityMiriMalaysia

Personalised recommendations