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Sustainable Nanocomposites in Food Packaging

  • H. AnuarEmail author
  • F. B. Ali
  • Y. F. Buys
  • M. A. Siti Nur E’zzati
  • A. R. Siti Munirah Salimah
  • M. S. Mahmud
  • N. Mohd Nordin
  • S. A. Adli
Chapter

Abstract

Plastics have been used extensively and exploited its usages in various applications such as packaging materials, automotive parts, tubes, pipes, and many more. The plastics have attracted many fields for its versatility, lightweight, and durability. Plastics are being used broadly as food packaging materials which come as bottle containers, food containers, and lightweight take-away food packets. However, as plastics are not degradable, they are causing a major environmental problem due to scarce of landfill sites. The plastics are also being washed into the sea and causing pollution in the ocean and being eaten by the fishes. Thus, there cause a need for developing biodegradable materials that have both mechanical strength and biodegradable. A lot of researchers are contributing to developing biodegradable materials that can substitute conventional polymers, however, there is still limit of mechanical strength and elongation-at-break as per need for food packaging. Therefore, the polymers/biodegradable polymers are being mixed with nano-sized fillers to form nanocomposites which have improved mechanical strength. In this chapter, preparations of nanocomposites are discussed thoroughly and the characterizations that are being used to study the properties of the nanocomposites are detailed in the sections below.

Keywords

Biodegradable Biopolymer Nanocomposite Functional properties And food packaging 

List of Abbreviations

APs

Alkyl phenols

CNCs

Cellulose nanocrystals

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CNW

Cellulose nanowhisker

CO2PC

Carbon dioxide permeability coefficient

CO2TR

Carbon dioxide transmission rate

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

DMF

N, N-dimethylformamide

EVOH

Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer

HDPE

High-density polyethylene

HPMC

Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose

HT

Hydroxytyrosol

HV

Hydroxyl-valerate

LDPE

Low-density polyethylene

MgO

Magnesium oxide

MMT

Montmorillonite

MWNT

Multi-walled carbon nanotube

OPC

Oxygen permeability coefficient

OTR

Oxygen transmission rate

PANI

Polyaniline

PCL

Poly(e-caprolactone)

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PEGME

Polyethylene glycol methyl ether

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PHA

Poly hydroxyalkanoate

PHB

Polyhydroxy butyrate

PHBV

Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate

PLA

Polylactic acid

PP

Polypropylene

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

ROP

Ring-opening polymerization

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

WHO

World health organization

WSC

Water-soluble chitosan

WVPC

Water vapour permeability coefficient

WVTR

Water vapour transmission rate

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Ministry of Education Malaysia for the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, FRGS14-105-0346, FRGS14-108-0349, FRGS16-003-0502 and RIGS16-085-0249 for the financial support and International Islamic University Malaysia for the facilities and equipment in making these studies a success.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Anuar
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. B. Ali
    • 2
  • Y. F. Buys
    • 1
  • M. A. Siti Nur E’zzati
    • 1
  • A. R. Siti Munirah Salimah
    • 1
  • M. S. Mahmud
    • 1
  • N. Mohd Nordin
    • 1
  • S. A. Adli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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