Spark Plasma Sintering of Titanium-Based Materials

  • O. O. Ayodele
  • M. B. Shongwe
  • B. A. Obadele
  • P. A. Olubambi


Titanium-based materials are highly sought after due to their exceptional thermomechanical properties such as excellent corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, high melting point, and toughness at elevated temperatures which contribute to their demand in automobile, aerospace, chemical, and energy industries. With these unique properties, the method of fabricating these materials has played a role in improving its mechanical properties through reinforcement with other materials. Powder metallurgy has been utilized to fabricate engineering materials into near net shape owing to its low cost and increase in material yield. Among various powder metallurgy processes, spark plasma sintering is the most popular and efficient method of fabricating materials such as titanium alloys, nickel alloys, ceramics, etc. because of its rapid heating and shorter sintering cycle. Aside from its utilization of pulsed direct current and pressure, spark plasma sintering fabricates at lower temperature, and grain growths are minimized as compared to other conventional sintering techniques. Materials obtained through this technique are highly dense, and they tend to yield superior mechanical properties including the phases and microstructures. The goal of this work is to present the processes and applications of spark plasma sintering of titanium-based materials, evaluate the optimization process parameters and their effects on material properties, and study the phases and microstructural evolutions with the support of research from literature on titanium materials.


Spark plasma sintering Titanium-based materials Microstructure and mechanical properties 



The author would like to appreciate the National Research Foundation (South Africa), Centre for Nanoengineering and Tribocorrosion, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, and Institute for Nanoengineering Research, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. O. Ayodele
    • 1
  • M. B. Shongwe
    • 2
  • B. A. Obadele
    • 1
  • P. A. Olubambi
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Nanoengineering and Tribocorrosion, School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Institute for Nanoengineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgy and Materials EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa

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