A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation

  • Minna KuljuEmail author
  • Mari Ylikauppila
  • Sirra Toivonen
  • Laura Salmela
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 544)


New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.


EU Schengen area Automated border control Border digitalization Human factors Human factors framework 



This work was conducted under the BODEGA project (Proactive Enhancement of Human Performance in Border Control; This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grand agreement No. 653676. Authors would like to thank project partners for their valuable co-operation in gathering and analyzing the data.


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minna Kulju
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mari Ylikauppila
    • 1
  • Sirra Toivonen
    • 1
  • Laura Salmela
    • 1
  1. 1.VTTTampereFinland

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