Advertisement

Abstract

The recognition of support-bargaining and money-bargaining as basic to the functioning of societies involves recognition also of the role of information. Transactions are evaluated on the basis of information, but beyond that, our whole experience is based on information. Our minds only deal with information. Information is used not so much in pursuit of truth as for the advance of interests in transactions of support-bargaining and money-bargaining. Information is codified for transmission. Neoclassical economic theory has subordinated its concepts to the requirements of mathematical codification. Media organisations disseminate information that affects the distribution of support, giving them an active and essential role in the process of government. The impossibility of identifying truth has meant that people develop localised understanding in their different spheres of what will constitute truth adequate to their purpose.

Keywords

Information Pursuit of truth Codification Media organisations External world Scientific method 

References

  1. Akerlof, George A., 1970, ‘The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akerlof, George A., and Shiller, Robert, 2015, Phishing for Phools, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alchian, A., and Demsetz, H., 1972, ‘Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization’, The American Economic Review, Vol. 62, pp. 777–95.Google Scholar
  4. Backhouse, Roger E., 1993, Economists and the Economy: The Evolution of Economic Ideas, Transaction.Google Scholar
  5. Backhouse, Roger E., 1994, Economists and the Economy: The Evolution of Economic Ideas, Second Edition, Transaction.Google Scholar
  6. Bannister, Robert, 1979, Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beer, Gillian, 2008, Introduction to Darwin, 2008/1859.Google Scholar
  8. Berger, Peter, and Luckman, Thomas, 1991/1966, The Social Construction of Reality, Penguin. First Published 1966.Google Scholar
  9. Briggs, Asa, and Burke, Peter, 2009, A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet, Third Edition, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bruni, Luigino, and Sugden, Robert, 2007, ‘The Road Not Taken: How Psychology Was Removed from Economics, and How It Might Be Brought Back’, The Economic Journal, Vol. 117, No. 516, pp. 146–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casson, Mark, 2000, ‘An Entrepreneurial Theory of the Firm’, in Foss and Mahuke, pp. 116–45.Google Scholar
  12. Cortada, James W., 2016, All the Facts: A History of Information in the United States Since 1870, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Crook, Paul, 1994, Darwinism, War and History, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Darwin, Charles, 2004/1871, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Penguin. First Published 1871.Google Scholar
  15. Davies, Nick, 2015, Hack Attack: How the Truth Caught Up with Rupert Murdoch, Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  16. Dawkins, Richard, 2006/1976, The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press. First Published 1976.Google Scholar
  17. Dow, Sheila, 2017, ‘How Far Are Economists Purveyors of Fake News?’, Annual Conference of the Institute for New Economic Thinking, October. https://www.ineteconomics.org/research/research-papers/how-far-are-economists-purveyors-of-fake-news. Accessed 12 January 2018.
  18. du Sautoy, Marcus, 2008, Symmetry: A Journey into the Patterns of Nature, HarperCollins. First Published in Great Britain 2008 as Finding Moonshine, Fourth Estate.Google Scholar
  19. Earl, Peter E. (Ed.), 1988, Behavioural Economics, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  20. Earl, Peter E., 1995, Microeconomics for Business and Marketing, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  21. Earl, Peter E. (Ed.), 2002, Information, Opportunism and Economic Coordination, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  22. Feynman, Richard P., Leighton, Robert B., and Sands, Matthew, 1964, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume 1, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  23. Finkelstein, Sidney, 1968, Sense and Nonsense of McLuhan, International Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Foss, Nicolai, and Loasby, Brian (Eds.), 2013, Introduction to Economic Organization, Capabilities and Coordination: Essays in Honour of G. B. Richardson, Electronic Resource, Bodleian Library and Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Foss, Nicolai, and Mahuke, Volker (Eds.), 2000, Competence, Governance and Entrepreneurship, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fransman, M. 1994. ‘Information, Knowledge, Vision and Theories of the Firm’, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 713–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Galatin, Malcolm, and Leiter, Robert D., 1981, The Economics of Information, Martinus Nijhoff Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Gigerenzer, Gerd, 1991, ‘How to Make Cognitive Illusions Disappear: Beyond “Heuristics and Biases”’, in Stroebe and Hewstone, 1991.Google Scholar
  29. Goldman, Alvin I., 2003, Knowledge in a Social World, Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gregory, Richard L., 2004a, ‘Perception’, in Gregory, 2004b.Google Scholar
  31. Gregory, Richard L. (Ed.), 2004b, The Oxford Companion to the Mind, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gigerenzer, G., Swijtink, Z., Porter, T., Daston, L., Beatty, J., and Kruger, L., 1989, The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hamilton, W. D., 1964, ‘The Genetic Evolution of Social Behavior, I and II’, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 7, pp. 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hayek, Friedrich A., 1952, The Sensory Order, An Enquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  35. Heilbroner, Robert, 2000, The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Theories and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers, Penguin. First Published 1953.Google Scholar
  36. Hodgson, G. M., 1988, Economics and Institutions, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hofstadter, Richard, 1983/1944, Social Darwinism in American Thought, Beacon Press. First Published 1944.Google Scholar
  38. Howgego, Joshua, 2016, ‘Britain’s Oldest Writing Found Buried Near London Tube Station’, New Scientist, June 1. https://www.newscientist.com/article/2091213-britains-oldest-writing-found-buried-near-london-tube-station/. Accessed 30 April 2018.
  39. Hugo, Victor, 2015/1831, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Waxkeep Publishing, Kindle Edition. First Published 1831.Google Scholar
  40. Innis, Harold, 1950, Empire and Communications, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jensen, M., and Meckling, W., 1976. ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behaviour, Agency Costs, and Ownership Structure’, The Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 3, pp. 305–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kahneman, Daniel, and Frederick, Shane, 2002, ‘Representativeness Revisited: Attribution Substitution in Intuitive Judgement’, in Gilovich, Griffin and Kahneman, 2002.Google Scholar
  43. Kahneman, Daniel, 2003, ‘Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioural Economics’, American Economic Review, Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 1449–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kahneman, Daniel, 2012, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Penguin.Google Scholar
  45. Kahneman, Daniel, and Tversky, Amos, 1979, ‘Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk’, Econometrica, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 263–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaye, Howard, 1986, The Social Meaning of Modern Biology, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lamberton, D. M. (Ed.), 1971, Economics of Information and Knowledge, Penguin.Google Scholar
  48. Lamberton, D. M. (Ed.), 1996, The Economics of Communication and Information, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  49. Lancaster, Kelvin J., 1981, ‘Information and Product Differentiation’, in Galatin and Leiter, 1981.Google Scholar
  50. Latour, Bruno, and Woolgar, Steve, 1986, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts, University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Leveson, Lord Justice Brian, 2012, An Inquiry into the Culture, Practices and Ethics of the Press, Volumes 1–4, Department of Culture, Media and Sport, Leveson Inquiry.Google Scholar
  52. Loasby, Brian, 1999, Knowledge, Institutions and Evolution in Economics, Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. March, James, and Simon, Herbert, 1993/1958, Organisations, Blackwell Business. First Published 1958.Google Scholar
  54. McLuhan, Marshall, 1964, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Molho, Ian, 2001, The Economics of Information: Lying and Cheating in Markets and Organisations, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  56. Nelson, Richard R., and Winter, Stanley G., 1982, An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  57. Patterson, Graeme H., 1990, History and Communications: Harold Innis, Marshall McLuhan, the Interpretation of History, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  58. Phlips, Louis, 1988, The Economics of Imperfect Information, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Pinker, Steven, 1994, The Language Instinct, Penguin.Google Scholar
  60. Poe, Marshall T., 2011, A History of Communications: Media and Society from the Evolution of Speech to the Internet, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Ponsford, Dominic, 2016a, ‘Strong UK National Press Bias in Favour of Leave Revealed by Press Gazette’s Brexitometer Front-Page Tracker’, Press Gazette, 16 June 2016.Google Scholar
  62. Ponsford, Dominic, 2016b, ‘EU Referendum: Why It May Have Been the Telegraph, Sun, Express and Mail “Wot Won It” for Leave’, Press Gazette, 24 June 2016.Google Scholar
  63. Price, Lance, 2010, Where Power Lies: Prime Ministers v The Media, Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  64. Richardson, George B., 1990/1960, Information and Investment: A Study in the Working of the Competitive Economy, Second Edition, Oxford University Press. First Published 1960.Google Scholar
  65. Richardson, George B., 1998, The Economics of Imperfect Knowledge: Collected Papers of G. B. Richardson, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  66. Searle, John, 1996, The Construction of Social Reality, Penguin.Google Scholar
  67. Simon, Herbert A., 1956, ‘Rational Choice and the Structure of the Environment’, Psychological Review, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 129–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Simon, Herbert A., 1957, Models of Man: Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behavior in a Social Setting, Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. Simon, Herbert A., 1983, Reason in Human Affairs, Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Simon, Herbert A., 1997/1947, Administrative Behaviour: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations, Free Press. First Published 1947.Google Scholar
  71. Spence, Michael, 1973, ‘Job Market Signalling’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 355–74.Google Scholar
  72. Spread, Patrick, 1984, A Theory of Support and Money Bargaining (TSMB), Macmillan.Google Scholar
  73. Spread, Patrick, 2008, Support-Bargaining: The Mechanics of Democracy Revealed (SBMDR), Book Guild.Google Scholar
  74. Spread, Patrick, 2011, ‘Situation as Determinant of Selection and Valuation’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 35, No. 2. Reprinted in Spread, 2015b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spread, Patrick, 2013, Support-Bargaining, Economics and Society: A Social Species (SBES), Routledge.Google Scholar
  76. Spread, Patrick, 2015a, ‘Asymmetric Information, Critical Information and the Information Interface’, Real-World Economics Review, No. 70, pp. 121–40. Reprinted in Spread, 2015b.Google Scholar
  77. Spread, Patrick, 2015b, Aspects of Support-Bargaining and Money-Bargaining (ASBMB), E-Book, World Economics Association.Google Scholar
  78. Spread, Patrick, 2016a, The Evolution of Economies: Money-Bargaining, Economic Change and Industrial Revolution (TEOE), Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Spread, Patrick, 2016b, ‘Companies and Markets: Economic Theories of the Firm and a Concept of Companies as Bargaining Agencies’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 727–53, Online at Doi. 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bev029. Reprinted in Spread, 2015b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spread, Patrick, 2019, Economics for an Information Age: Money-Bargaining, Support-Bargaining and the Information Interface (EIA), Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Steup, Mathias, 2014, ‘Epistemology’, in Zalta, 2014.Google Scholar
  82. Stewart, Ian, and Golubitsky, Martin, 1992, Fearful Symmetry: Is God a Geometer? Penguin.Google Scholar
  83. Stigler, G. J., 1961, ‘The Economics of Information’, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 69, pp. 213–25. Reprinted in Lamberton, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1985, ‘Information and Economic Analysis: A Perspective’, The Economic Journal, Vol. 95, Supplement, pp. 21–41.Google Scholar
  85. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 2002, ‘Information and the Change in the Paradigm in Economics’, American Economic Review, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 460–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Williamson, O. E., 1987, The Economic Institutions of Capitalism, Free Press.Google Scholar
  87. Wilson, Edward O., 2000/1975, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Belknap Press. First Published 1975.Google Scholar
  88. Wilson, Edward O., 2004/1978, On Human Nature, Harvard University Press. First Published 1978.Google Scholar
  89. World Bank, 2015, World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society and Behaviour, World Bank.Google Scholar
  90. Zalta, Edward N. (Ed.), 2014, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Spring Edition, 4, Sources of Knowledge and Justification. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/epistemology/. Accessed 28 December 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Spread
    • 1
  1. 1.WitneyUK

Personalised recommendations