Security Threats in Network Coding-Enabled Mobile Small Cells

  • Reza Parsamehr
  • Georgios Mantas
  • Ayman Radwan
  • Jonathan Rodriguez
  • José-Fernán Martínez
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 263)


The recent explosive growth of mobile data traffic, the continuously growing demand for higher data rates, and the steadily increasing pressure for higher mobility have led to the fifth-generation mobile networks. To this end, network-coding (NC)-enabled mobile small cells are considered as a promising 5G technology to cover the urban landscape by being set up on-demand at any place, and at any time on any device. In particular, this emerging paradigm has the potential to provide significant benefits to mobile networks as it can decrease packet transmission in wireless multicast, provide network capacity improvement, and achieve robustness to packet losses with low energy consumption. However, despite these significant advantages, NC-enabled mobile small cells are vulnerable to various types of attacks due to the inherent vulnerabilities of NC. Therefore, in this paper, we provide a categorization of potential security attacks in NC-enabled mobile small cells. Particularly, our focus is on the identification and categorization of the main potential security attacks on a scenario architecture of the ongoing EU funded H2020-MSCA project “SECRET” being focused on secure network coding-enabled mobile small cells.


Mobile small cells 5G communications Security Network Coding D2D communications 



This research work leading to this publication has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under grant agreement H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016-SECRET-722424.


  1. 1.
    Wang, C.-X., et al.: Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 122–130 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chih-Lin, I., et al.: Toward green and soft: a 5G perspective. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 66–73 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bangerter, B., et al.: Networks and devices for the 5G era. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 90–96 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sucasas, V., Mantas, G., Rodriguez, J.: Security challenges for cloud radio access networks. In: Backhauling/Fronthauling for Future Wireless Systems, pp. 195–211 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mantas, G., et al.: Security for 5G Communications (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gupta, A., Jha, R.K.: A survey of 5G network: architecture and emerging technologies. IEEE Access 3, 1206–1232 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chou, S.-F., et al.: Mobile small cell deployment for next generation cellular networks. In: Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2014 IEEE. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saghezchi, F.B., et al.: Drivers for 5G. Fundamentals of 5G Mobile Networks, pp. 1–27 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Katti, S., et al.: XORs in the air: practical wireless network coding. In: ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen, Y.-J., et al.: Topology-aware network coding for wireless multicast. IEEE Syst. J. 12(4), 3683–3692 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahlswede, R., et al.: Network information flow. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. 46(4), 1204–1216 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ho, T., Lun, D.: Network Coding: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu, Y., Chou, P.A., Kung, S.-Y.: Minimum-energy multicast in mobile ad hoc networks using network coding. IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(11), 1906–1918 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: Towards secure network coding-enabled wireless sensor networks in cyber-physical systems. In: Cyber-Physical Systems from Theory to Practice, ch. 16, pp. 395–415 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: A null space-based MAC scheme against pollution attacks to Random linear Network Coding. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW). IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: An improved homomorphic message authentication code scheme for RLNC-enabled wireless networks. In: 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: Analysis of a homomorphic MAC-based scheme against tag pollution in RLNC-enabled wireless networks. In: 2015 IEEE 20th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modelling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang, D., et al.: Jointly padding for subspace orthogonality against tag pollution. In: 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: Dual-homomorphic message authentication code scheme for network coding-enabled wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 11(7), 510251 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: An efficient homomorphic MAC-based scheme against data and tag pollution attacks in network coding-enabled wireless networks. Int. J. Inf. Secur. 16(6), 627–639 (2017)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Esfahani, A., Mantas, G., Rodriguez, J.: An efficient null space-based homomorphic MAC scheme against tag pollution attacks in RLNC. IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(5), 918–921 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Esfahani, A., et al.: An efficient MAC-based scheme against pollution attacks in XOR network coding-enabled WBANs for remote patient monitoring systems. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2016(1), 113 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    SEcure Network Coding for Reduced Energy nexT generation Mobile Small cells. H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016-722424 01 January 2017–31 December 2020.
  24. 24.
    Talooki, V.N., et al.: Security concerns and countermeasures in network coding based communication systems: a survey. Comput. Netw. 83, 422–445 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ostovari, P., Wu, J.: Towards Network Coding for Cyber-Physical Systems: Security Challenges and Applications. Wiley (2017)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lima, L., et al.: Network coding security: Attacks and countermeasures. arXiv preprint arXiv:0809.1366 (2008)
  27. 27.
    Fan, Y., et al.: An efficient privacy-preserving scheme against traffic analysis attacks in network coding. In: INFOCOM 2009 IEEE. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu, B., Chen, J., Wu, J., Cardei, M.: A survey of attacks and countermeasures in mobile ad hoc networks. In: Xiao, Y., Shen, X.S., Du, D.Z. (eds.) Wireless Network Security. Signals and Communication Technology. Springer, Boston (2007). Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jawandhiya, P.M., et al.: A survey of mobile ad hoc network attacks. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2(9), 4063–4071 (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dong, J., et al.: Pollution attacks and defenses in wireless interflow network coding systems. IEEE Trans. Depend. Secure Comput. 9(5), 741–755 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Newell, A.J., Curtmola, R., Nita-Rotaru, C.: Entropy attacks and countermeasures in wireless network coding. In: Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen, B., et al.: Remote data checking for network coding-based distributed storage systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Workshop on Cloud Computing Security Workshop. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chiu, H.S., Lui, K.-S.: DelPHI: wormhole detection mechanism for ad hoc wireless networks. In: 2006 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing. IEEE (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mishra, A., Nadkarni, K.M.: Security in wireless ad hoc networks. In: The Handbook of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. CRC Press, Inc (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Padmavathi, D.G., Shanmugapriya, M.: A survey of attacks, security mechanisms and challenges in wireless sensor networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:0909.0576 (2009)

Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reza Parsamehr
    • 1
    • 2
  • Georgios Mantas
    • 1
  • Ayman Radwan
    • 1
  • Jonathan Rodriguez
    • 1
  • José-Fernán Martínez
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de TelecomunicaçõesAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Universidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations