Administration of Vaccines: Current Process, New Technologies and Adjuvants
Vaccine formulations and administration have travelled a long path since the first vaccines were developed. Progress in pharmaceutical science has taught us a lot about tailoring vaccine formulations and routes for administration in order to obtain effective immune responses. Indeed, there is an age-related decline in immune function that impairs the response to infection and vaccination in older adults. Therefore, specialized solutions are warranted to achieve better vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy among these populations. Vaccine coverage is also suboptimal, meaning that target groups may not be sufficiently well protected. High coverage is essential to maintain health in the population, and there is value in using even those vaccines that appear less than optimal since the impact of vaccination is substantial in terms of death and hospitalization avoided. Strategies to enhance immunization performed are discussed here, including achieving high coverage, development of new formulations with higher antigen content or alternative delivery routes or adjuvants. New technologies are revolutionizing the field of vaccine development; their ability to make possible new and more effective vaccines will further increase benefits of vaccinations in the years to come.
KeywordsVaccine Administration Coverage Adjuvants
This work was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Giuseppe Del Giudice and Alberta Di Pasquale are employees of the GSK Group of Companies.
- 1.World Health Organization. Global and regional immunization profile: European region. 2017. http://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/data/gs_eurprofile.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 24 June 2018.
- 10.Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Seasonal influenza 2014–2015. Epidemiological surveillance. 2015. http://old.iss.it/binary/iflu/cont/Influnet_stagione_2014_2015.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
- 26.Leroux-Roels G, Bourguignon P, Willekens J, Janssens M, Clement F, Didierlaurent AM, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of an investigational adjuvanted polyprotein HIV-1 vaccine in healthy adults and effect of administration of chloroquine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(3):302–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Leroux-Roels G, Van Belle P, Vandepapeliere P, Horsmans Y, Janssens M, Carletti I, et al. Vaccine Adjuvant Systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS-21 induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen which persist for at least 4 years after vaccination. Vaccine. 2015;33(8):1084–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Leroux-Roels I, Devaster JM, Leroux-Roels G, Verlant V, Henckaerts I, Moris P, et al. Adjuvant system AS02V enhances humoral and cellular immune responses to pneumococcal protein PhtD vaccine in healthy young and older adults: randomised, controlled trials. Vaccine. 2015;33(4):577–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Einstein MH, Baron M, Levin MJ, Chatterjee A, Fox B, Scholar S, et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7(12):1359–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Einstein MH, Baron M, Levin MJ, Chatterjee A, Fox B, Scholar S, et al. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine: follow-up from months 12–24 in a Phase III randomized study of healthy women aged 18–45 years. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7(12):1343–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Berarducci B, Rajamani J, Reichelt M, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Arvin AM. Deletion of the first cysteine-rich region of the varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E ectodomain abolishes the gE and gI interaction and differentially affects cell-cell spread and viral entry. J Virol. 2009;83(1):228–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Malavige GN, Jones L, Black AP, Ogg GS. Varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E-specific CD4+ T cells show evidence of recent activation and effector differentiation, consistent with frequent exposure to replicative cycle antigens in healthy immune donors. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;152(3):522–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar