Advertisement

H\(^{2}\)-RAID: A Novel Hybrid RAID Architecture Towards High Reliability

  • Tianyu Wang
  • Zhiyong Zhang
  • Mengying Zhao
  • Ke Liu
  • Zhiping Jia
  • Jianping Yang
  • Yang Wu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11337)

Abstract

With the rapid development of storage technology, Solid State Drive (SSD) has received extensive attentions from industry and academia. As a promising alternative of the conventional Hard Disk Drive (HDD), SSD shows its advantages in terms of I/O performance, power consumption and shock resistance. But the natural constraint of write endurance limits the use of SSDs in large-scale storage systems, especially for scenarios with high reliability equirements. The Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID) technology provides a mechanism of device-level fault tolerance. To guarantee the performance, current RAID strategies usually evenly distributes the I/O requests to all disks. However, different from HDD, the bit error rate (BER) of SSD increases dramatically when it gets older. Therefore, simply introducing RAID technology into SSD array would result in the “correlated SSD failure” problem, that is, all the SSDs in array wear out at approximately the same time, seriously affecting the reliability of the array. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid High reliability RAID architecture named H\(^{2}\)-RAID, which combines SSDs with HDDs to achieve the high-performance of SSDs and the high-reliability of HDDs. To minimize the performance degradation caused by the low-performance HDDs, we design an HDD-aware backup strategy to coalesce the small writes requests. We implement the proposed strategy on the simulator based on Disksim. The experimental results show that we reduce the probability of data loss from 11.31% to 0.02% with only 5% performance loss, in average.

Keywords

Solid state drive Hard disk drive RAID reliability Hybrid architecture 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is sponsored by the National Key R&D Program of China No. 2017YFB0902602 and State Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 61533011.

References

  1. 1.
    Narayanan, D., Thereska, E., Donnelly, A., Elnikety, S., Rowstron, A.: Migrating server storage to SSDs: analysis of tradeoffs. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM European conference on Computer systems, pp. 145–158. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patterson, D.A., Gibson, G., Katz, R.H.: A case for redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID), vol. 17. ACM (1988)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grupp, L.M., et al.: Characterizing flash memory: anomalies, observations, and applications. In: 42nd Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO), pp. 24–33. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mielke, N., et al.: Bit error rate in NAND flash memories. In: IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), pp. 9–19. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim, J., et al.: Improving SSD reliability with raid via elastic striping and anywhere parity. In: 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), pp. 1–12. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balakrishnan, M., Kadav, A., Prabhakaran, V., Malkhi, D.: Differential raid: rethinking raid for SSD reliability. ACM Trans. Storage (TOS) 6, 4 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agrawal, N., et al.: Design tradeoffs for SSD performance. In: USENIX Annual Technical Conference, vol. 57 (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee, S., et al.: A lifespan-aware reliability scheme for raid-based flash storage. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 374–379. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Park, K., et al.: Reliability and performance enhancement technique for SSD array storage system using raid mechanism. In: 9th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology (ISCIT), pp. 140–145. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang, M., Hu, Y.: i-RAID: a novel redundant storage architecture for improving reliability, performance, and life-span of solid-state disk systems. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 1824–1831. ACM (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, Y., Shen, B., Pan, Y., Yinlong, X., Li, Z., Lui, J.C.S.: Workload-aware elastic striping with hot data identification for SSD raid arrays. IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circ. Syst. 36(5), 815–828 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wan, J., et al.: S2-RAID: parallel raid architecture for fast data recovery. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 25(6), 1638–1647 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang, N., Xu, Y., Li, Y., Wu, S.: OI-RAID: a two-layer raid architecture towards fast recovery and high reliability. In: 46th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), pp. 61–72. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim, Y., et al.: HybridStore: a cost-efficient, high-performance storage system combining SSDs and HDDs. In: IEEE 19th International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, pp. 227–236. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xiao, W., et al.: Pass: a hybrid storage system for performance-synchronization tradeoffs using SSDs. In: IEEE 10th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications (ISPA), pp. 403–410. IEEE (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    I/O. UMass trace repository (2007). http://traces.cs.umass.edu/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tianyu Wang
    • 1
  • Zhiyong Zhang
    • 1
  • Mengying Zhao
    • 1
  • Ke Liu
    • 1
  • Zhiping Jia
    • 1
  • Jianping Yang
    • 2
  • Yang Wu
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyShandong UniversityQingDaoChina
  2. 2.State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power CompanyShanghaiChina
  3. 3.NARI Group Corporation (State Grid Electric Power Research Institute)NanjingChina
  4. 4.Beijing Kedong Electric Power Control System Co. Ltd.BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations