Advertisement

Gendered Perspectives on Swedish Transport Policy-Making: An Issue for Gendered Sustainability Too

  • Lena Smidfelt RosqvistEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents a two-folded equality reason for a gendered perspective on transport policy and planning. Women’s transportation behaviour has a lower environmental impact than men’s, and women also tend to have stronger preferences for measures improving sustainability in the transport sector. The differences in presented data imply that gendering the transport sector might not only be of transport equality importance but also important for gendering the climate and sustainability goals for the transport sector. The chapter further presents results from investigations regarding whether Swedish transport policy documents on transport issues include any gender perspective and further if representation in decision-making bodies for transport issues are gendered. Based on presented data, the article argues that to more actively involve a gender perspective in transport policy-making thus goes beyond increasing the democratic quality of policy-making by involving women as decision-makers. It might also improve democratic quality of policy-making for overall sustainability as including a gender perspective on measures and decisions for the transport sector would include a stronger stand for a more sustainable and safer transport sector. In this chapter, I argue that the most urgent need for change is to disseminate knowledge (new and existing), to increase the level of competence among policy-makers and planners in the transport sector, to contest prevailing norms and to raise consciousness on gender impacts.

References

  1. Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Linden, A.-L., & Thelander, Å. (1999). Insights and applications gender differences in environmental impacts from patterns of transportation: A case study from Sweden. Society & Natural Resources, 12(4), 355–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Commission on Fossil Free Road Transport. (2013). Fossilfrihet på väg. SOU 2013: 84.Google Scholar
  3. Dymén, C., Langlais, R., & Cars, G. (2013). Engendering climate change: The Swedish experience of a global citizens’ consultation. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 16(2), 161–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dymén, C., Hiselius, L., Kronsell, A., & Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. (2017). Gender equal representation and sustainability in the transport sector. Paper presented at the conference gendering smart mobility 24–25 August 2017, Oslo.Google Scholar
  5. EIGE, European Institute of Gender equality. (2012). Review of the implementation in the EU of area K of the Beijing platform for action: Women and environment – Gender equality and climate change. isbn:978-92-9218-024-9.Google Scholar
  6. EIGE, European Institute of Gender Equality. (2017). Gender equality index 2017 – Measuring gender equality in the European Union 2005–2015.  https://doi.org/10.2839/707843. isbn:978-92-9470-297-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. European Commission. (2009). European’s attitude towards climate change. Brussels: EU Commission.Google Scholar
  8. European Commission. (2011). Roadmap to a single European transport area: Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system. Brussels: EU Commission.Google Scholar
  9. EEA, European Environment Agency. (2017). Analysis of key trends and drivers in greenhouse gas emissions in the EU between 1990 and 2015 (EEA report no 8/2017). isbn:978–92–9213-861-5, issn:1977–8449.  https://doi.org/10.2800/121780.
  10. Gil Solá, A. (2013). På väg mot jämställda arbetsresor? (Towards gender equal commuting?). Doctoral thesis, Gothenburg University.Google Scholar
  11. Hanson, S. (2010). Gender and mobility: New approaches for informing sustainability. Gender, Place and Culture, 17(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hjorthol, R. (2008). Daily mobility of men and women: A barometer of gender equality. In T. P. Uteng & T. Cresswell (Eds.), Gendered mobilities (pp. 193–210). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  13. Kronsell, A., Smidfelt Rosqvist, L., & Winslott Hiselius, L. (2015). Achieving climate objectives in transport policy by including women and challenging gender norms: The Swedish case. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 10(8), 703–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kurian, A. K. (2000). Engendering the environment? Gender in the World Bank’s environmental policies. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  15. Levin, L., Faith-Ell, C., Scholten, C., Aretun, Å., Halling, J., & Thoresson, K. (2016). Att integrera jämställdhet i länstransportplanering (Integrating gender equality into regional transport planning). K2 Research 2016: 1.Google Scholar
  16. Levy, C. (2013). Travel choice reframed: ‘Deep distribution’ and gender in urban transport. Environment & Urbanization, 25(1), 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindén, A.-L. (1994). Människa och miljö (Human and environment). Stockholm: Carlssons.Google Scholar
  18. May, A. D. (2013). Urban transport and sustainability: The key challenges. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 7(3), 170–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moriarty, P., & Honnery, D. (2013). Greening passenger transport: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 54, 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newman, P., & Beatley, T. (2009). Resilient cities: Responding to peak oil and climate change. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  21. Nilsson, L. J., Khan, J., Andersson, F. N. G., Klintman, M., Hildingsson, R., Kronsell, A., Pettersson, F., Pålsson, H., & Smedby, N. (2013). I ljuset av framtiden – styrning mot nollutsläpp 2050 (In the light of the future: Governing towards zero emissions 2050). LETS 2050-report, Lund University. Available online http://www.lth.se/fileadmin/lets2050/Rapporter_o_Abstracts/130831_Slutrapport_SE.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept 2015.
  22. Polk, M. (1998). Gendered mobility: A study of women’s and men’s relations to automobility in Sweden. Göteborg: Institutionen för omvärldsstudier av människans villkor, avdelningen för humanekologi, GU, Doctoral thesis 1998.Google Scholar
  23. Polk, M. (2003). Are women potentially more accommodating than men to a sustainable transport system in Sweden? Transportation Research Part D, 8, 75–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Post, C., & Byron, K. (2015). Women on boards and firm financial performance: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 58(5), 1546–1571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Prop. (1993/94:147). Jämställdhetspolitiken: Delad makt – delat ansvar. Swedish government bill on gender equality: Shared power – Shared responsibility.Google Scholar
  26. Prop. (1997/98:56). Transportpolitik för en hållbar utveckling. Swedish government bill on transport policy for a sustainable development.Google Scholar
  27. Prop. (2008a/09:93). Mål för framtidens resor och transporter. Swedish government bill on targets for future travelling and transport.Google Scholar
  28. Prop. (2008b/09:162). En sammanhållen klimat- och energipolitik – Klimat. Swedish government bill on a coherent climate and energy policy – Climate.Google Scholar
  29. Prop. (2016/17:146). Ett klimatpolitiskt ramverk för Sverige. Swedish government bill on a climate policy framework for Sweden.Google Scholar
  30. Rönnblom, M. (2011). What’s the problem? Constructions of gender equality in Swedish politics. Tidskrift för genusvetenskap, 2–3, 33–56.Google Scholar
  31. Rönnblom, M., & Alnebratt, K. (2016). Feminism som byråkrati: jämställdhetsintegrering som strategi (Feminism as bureaucracy: Gender mainstreaming as strategy). Stockholm: Leopard förlag.Google Scholar
  32. RVU Sweden. (2011–2014). The national travel survey, RVU Sverige (Sweden) 2011–2014. Swedish Transport Analysis and SCB.Google Scholar
  33. Scheiner, J., Sicks, K., & Holz-Rau, C. (2011). Gendered activity spaces: Trends over three decades in Germany. Erkunde, 65(4), 371–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. (2009). Post-script on traffic systems for an improved city environment. Journal of World Transport Policy & Practice, 15(3), 54–55.Google Scholar
  35. Smidfelt Rosqvist, L., & Wennberg, H. (2012). Harmonizing the planning process with the national visions and plans on sustainable transport: The case of Sweden. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48, 2374–2384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smidfelt Rosqvist, L., & Winslott Hiselius, L. (2018). Understanding high car use in relation to policy measures based on Swedish data. Case Studies on Transport Policy.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2018.11.004.
  37. Smidfelt Rosqvist, L., Dickinson, J., Billsjö, R., Nilsson, A., & Söderström, L. (2010). Jämställdhet i infrastrukturplaneringen – en utvärdering (Gender equality in infrastructure planning: An evaluation). Trivector Report 2010:38.Google Scholar
  38. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Genusperspektiv på allmänhetens kunskaper och attityder till klimatförändringen (tidigare växthuseffekten) (Gender perspective on public knowledge and attitudes towards climate change (formerly greenhouse effect)). ARS P0924.Google Scholar
  39. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Allmänheten och klimatförändringen (The public and climate change). Report No. 6311.Google Scholar
  40. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). Allmänheten och klimatförändringen 2015 (The public and climate change 2015). Rapport 2015-05-22.Google Scholar
  41. Swedish Transport Administration. (2012a). Delrapport Transporter. Underlag till färdplan 2050 (Interim report for transport: Documentation for Road Map 2050). Trafikverket publication 2012:224, Borlänge.Google Scholar
  42. Swedish Transport Administration. (2012b). Investigation of capacity in the Swedish railway system: Suggested solutions for the years 2012–2021. Trafikverket publication 2012: 005.Google Scholar
  43. Swedish Transport Analysis. (2013). Uppföljning av de transportpolitiska målen (Follow-up of the transport policy objectives). Report No. 4.Google Scholar
  44. Transek. (2006). Mäns och kvinnors resande. Vilka mönster kan ses i mäns och kvinnors resande och vad beror dessa på? (Men’s and women’s travelling: What patterns can be seen in men’s and women’s travelling and what are they due to?). Report No. 51.Google Scholar
  45. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender & Society, 1(2), 125–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wittbom, E. (2009). Att spränga normer – om målstyrningsprocesser för jämställdhetsintegrering (Breaking norms: On management by objectives for gender mainstreaming). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.Google Scholar
  47. World Bank. (2009). Public attitudes toward climate change: Findings from a multi-country poll in World development report 2010: Development and climate change. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trivector Traffic ABLundSweden

Personalised recommendations